Psychology 1410- Altered States of Consciousness
Psychology 1410- Altered States of Consciousness Psy-1410-007
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carley Olejniczak on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy-1410-007 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Ch. 4 Altered States of Consciousness Consciousness Consciousness – awareness of the outside world and the inside world (“self”) Examples of altered states of consciousness: o Getting your name called when you’re focused on something else – “snapping out” of it o Reading a book o Child’s play – using imagination to create a whole new world o Sleeping o Hypnosis o Driving – driving all the way to a destination and not recalling how you got there The Psychology of Sleep Side effects of no sleep: o Delusions o Emotional o Decreased executive functions Why do we sleep? o Restorative o Protective o Consolidation of memory – this is the most supported reason Infants sleep 14-16 hours a day Adults sleep on average 7.5 hours a day o The older you get the less sleep you need Before electricity, humans slept on average 9 hours every night o No distractions from phones or TV, or lights to aid in doing other activities o The number of sleep cycles completed = better rest Sleep Cycles Stage 1 o Drifting off o Twitching o Easily woken o Sometimes get the sensation of falling Stage 2 o Brief bursts of sleep spindles o Falling deeper asleep o Still easy to wake Stage 3 o First stage of Deep Sleep o Combination of slow (delta waves) and fast waves o Harder to wake up o Groggy if woken Stage 4 o Deep sleep o Breathing is slow and loud o Can be frightening to be woken o Very hard to wake up REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement) o AKA Paradoxical Sleep o Dream state o Brain patterns look like those when awake Average cycle is 90 minutes long During an 8 hour sleep, people typically progress through 5 full cycles More sleep cycles completed is better than more hours of sleep Sleep Disorders Insomnia o Trouble falling asleep and staying asleep Narcolepsy o Randomly falling asleep Sleep Apnea o Breathing difficulty during sleep o Need a machine to breathe normally during sleep Case Study: Circadian Rhythms (biological clock) Stefania Follini (1989) Stayed underground for 131 days – did not see the sun Her sense of time elongated Would sleep for 24 hours and be active for 30 hours Ate less frequently – lost 30 lbs. Menstrual cycles stopped Internal biological clock became dysfunctional Sleep Intervention Sleep routine and sleep hygiene o What it takes someone to “wind down” in order to go to sleep o Different for everyone o Examples: hot shower, reading a book, drinking a warm beverage Dreams Sigmund Freud- believed dreams are like your subconscious o Iceberg theory: consciousness is the “tip,” unconscious is the “bottom” o Dreams are interpretations of the unconscious o Example: naked in a dream means you are self-conscious, shameful, etc. teeth falling out = inadequacy; fear of rejection Flying = flying over problems with ease Falling/drowning = lack of control Being chased = pressure or stress Dreaming subjects contain little/no activity in the frontal area of the brain (Braun 1998) Dreams are likely to reveal individuals’ projected view of the world and specific historical experiences (Hobson 1998) Hypnosis Does it exist? o “something” appears to be happening Can be used for medical or therapeutic treatments “Hypnosis” – derived from the Greek word for sleep State vs. Non-state debate o Is it a state of sleep? No support o Imaging provides no evidence for hypnosis trance o A wakeful state of focused attention o EEG studies indicate that a hypnotized person is fully awake Have to relax, focus, imagine, and be open to suggestion to be hypnotized It messes with the line that separates make-believe from reality We are able to construct our own reality 10-15% of adults are highly hypnotizable o 1/5 adults are resistant to hypnosis 80-85% of children are highly hypnotizable Hypnosis for treatment o Limb amputations o Child birth o Dental work o Anxiety, depression, eating disorders o Trauma Hypnosis and memory o Eyewitness to crime o Unlock childhood experiences o Past lives
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