HY 101, Week 5 Notes
HY 101, Week 5 Notes HY 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel Riches in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
WEEK 5 NOTES The Fall of the Roman Empire Roman Empire, c. 100 BC Endured for 4 centuries Crisis in the Roman Empire Moral crisis o Cato the Elder 234-149 BC Social crisis o Optimates and equites Political crisis o Tiberius (c. 163-133 BC) and Gaius (153-121 BC) Gracchus (the Gracchi) o Marius and army reform 107 BC Wanted the poor to become long-term professional soldiers Flaws in the plan: No longer felt collective sacrifice Became dependent on grants and state Generals were supporting their troops because the Senate couldn’t; lead to the generals having a ton of support and power Civil war in the Roman Republic Civil Wars o Rapid territorial expansion because army is powerful and generals were becoming very ambitious The personal goals of the generals would push this expansion o Marius, 157-86 BC Elected himself multiple times Uses army to extort payment from Senate o Lucius Cornelius Sulla, 138-78 BC General, had great success Reformer, appealed to common people o Generals would have big parade and celebration once they returned from victories Would had out treasures o These civil wars created massive death tolls and mass execution, extremely violent o Sulla defeated Marius, and names himself temporary tyrant Conservative backlash to restore the Republic o Relinquished tyrant His rule calmed everything down but not for long; actually made things worse First Triumvirate o Pompey, 106-48 BC Successful general in East o Marcus Crassus, 115-63 BC Defeated Spartacus o Julius Cesar, 100-44 BC No military reputation but very crafty and slick o Each promised to support each other, 60 BC Negative integration Senate was their common enemy o Civil war of 49-45 BC Caesar’s military activities As his military reputation grew, he valued public opinion o Wrote up himself stories about himself to share with the public, made him very popular Pompey stays in Italy Starts running the homeland/ government Crassus 53 BC, dies in combat Caesar gets restless, invades Italy and gets rid of Pompey Major inter-continental struggle Pompey killed around 41 BC 45 BC, Caesar is triumphant o Ended in Spain After Civil War Caesar is nice to enemies, gains popularity Attacks social issues Added more government jobs Established colonies Had himself declared dictator for life o Caesar assassinated 44 BC Intended to be a public act to protect the Republic Cassius Longinus (d. 42BC), Marcus Julius Brutus (c.85-42 BC), Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC) Thought they were saving the republic Each person stabbed Caesar once Smeared his blood on their hands, no shame Cicero wrote the reasoning for the public
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