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Nutrition notes for the week

by: Veronica Morgan

Nutrition notes for the week NTDT 10003

Veronica Morgan
GPA 3.7
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About this Document

These notes cover 2-15-16 and 2-17-16
Contemporary Nutrition Concerns
Dr. Dority
Class Notes




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Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Veronica Morgan on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTDT 10003 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Dority in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Contemporary Nutrition Concerns in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
Nutrition Lecture 2/15 and 2/17 Macronutrients – Carbohydrates Bodies Need for Carbs ­ Primary role is to provide body with energy ­ Brain and CNS prefer this as source of energy ­ Brain and CNS are sensitive to blood sugar concentration  Carbohydrate Basics ­ Compounds made of single sugars or multiple sugars ­ Composed of C H O ­ Carbo ( C) + hydrate (H20) ­ Two categories simple and complex ­ Simple –  naturally occurring sugars in fruit, milk  + added sugars: honey, corn syrup,  table sugar ­ Complex – starch and fiber  Simple Carbs (CHO) ­ All CHO are composed of single sugars = monosaccharaides  ­ Three monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, galactose ­ Glucose = building block of CHO, used in plant and animal tissues for quick  energy, not very sweet, all CHO (except fiber) can be converted to glucose ­ Fructose = found in fruits and honey, sweetest ­ Galactose = seldom occurs by self, part of lactose (milk sugar) ­ Disaccharides = 2 monosaccharaides  ­ 3 different disaccharides are sucrose, maltose, lactose ­ Sucrose = glucose and fructose ie table sugar ­ Maltose = glucose and glucose ie from digestion of starch and found in beer/malt  beverages ­ Lactose = glucose and galactose ie milk sugar and aids calcium absorption  Lactose Intolerance ­ Lactase = enzyme that splits lactose during digestion ­ Many people lose the ability to digest lactose during or after childhood ­ Symptoms include nausea, bloating, abdominal pain or cramping, gas, or  diarrhea ­ Can develop temporarily in people who are sick or malnourished  ­ Intolerance doesn’t promote immune response its just symptomatic ­ Allergy prompts immune response and things are attached and tissue can be  damaged  ­ Treatment: avoid milk products or use enzyme treated foods ­ As we get older, enzyme to process dairy drops a lot because go from baby food  ( breast milk) to other varieties of food Complex CHO  ­ starch and fiber ­ ­all starchy foods are plant foods ­ ­most societies have a primary or staple grain (ex rice in Asia) Starch ­ is a polysaccharide (many sugars) ­ ­up to 3000 glucose units in each molecule of starch ­ grains legumes = rich starch source ­ ­kernel = part of the wheat plant that is made into flour (whear kernel = whole  grain ­ 1. germ = nutrient rich part of whole grain (grows into plant) ­ 2. endosperm = soft inside portion that contains starch and protein; provides  energy ­ 3. husk = outer, inedible covering of grain (removed in whole grain products) ­ 4. bran = fibrous protective coating around the kernel ­ ­refined = process by which course parts of food products are removed; mangles food and takes out all nutrients  ­ ­enriched = B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid) and iron are added  to refined grains and grain products ­ ­­enrichment act of 1942 – still in place, US is required that if you process any  kernels to be sold, nutrients have to be added back  ­ fortified foods = nutrients added to prevent deficiency or reduce risk of chronic  disease  ­ sometimes forify to add nutrients that weren’t there, sometimes fortify and add  things to a greater level than they were before  ­ irony that white bread used to be a status symbol but it was nutrient deficient  ­ how do you know if getting whole grain? 100% whole wheat or grain YES. If say  whole grain bread with no percentages, NOT SURE,  Fiber ­ indigestible residues of food, composed of polysaccharide ­ ex cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, gums ­ does not provide energy because bonds cannot be broken by human digestive  enzymes ­ two types soluble and insoluble  Insoluble ­ does not dissolve in water ­ holds water in colon ­ increase bulk ­ stimulates muscle in GI tract ­ cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin ­ helps with digestion soluble ­ dissolve or swell in water ­ cholesterol lowering ­ improved blood glucose control ­ pectins and gums ­ picks up stuff throughout the digestive tract throughout the way like cholesterol,  blood glucose ­ swells quite a bit because of water  ­ foods can have a crossover between soluble and insoluble  Fiber rich foods table comparing insoluble and soluble  Errors with carbohydrate classification summary 1. “sucose” instead of sucrose 2. “simple sugars” instead of single sugars Guidelines for choosing CHO  ­ Complex CHO: most valuable energy nutrient  ­ Dietary guidelines and myplate focus on choosing fiber rich foods, vegetables,  and whole grains ­ At least half of the recommended grain servings should be whole grain Guidelines for choosing CHO table  CHO metabolism definitions ­ Digestive system = the body system composed of organs and glands and  associated with the ingestion and processing of food for absorption of nutrients  into the body ­ Digestion = process by which foods are broken down into smaller absorbable  products ­ Absorption = passage of nutrients of substance into cells of tissues Digestive system ­ Digestion begins in mouth with amylase ­ Amylase splits starch into smaller polysaccharides  ­ Nothing happens in stomach because HCl cancels out amylase ­ Pancreas produces more amylase and it goes into small intestine ­ Small intestine is much less acidic so amylase can do its job and digests food ­ Snipping of bonds occurs in small intestine and after that all that is left is  monosaccharides  ­ Monosaccharides go to the liver to be converted to glucose (when all else fails  answer is liver) because brain and CNS run of sugar ­ Mostly eat things that are mixed together so takes several hours Frequently missed questions from exam 1 1. Diet provides 2200 calories where 40% from fat, 20% from protein so how many  grams of carbs?? How to work answer – 40% of total calories from carbs, multiply 2200 by .4 and  get 880 calories so divide by 4 to get grams  2. Which is false  Are the DRIS for healthy people only ­ TRUE Are they nutrient requirements people meet every day – FALSE  Separate recommendations made for diff groups of people – TRUE 3. Lite potato chips which one true? 1/3 calories or half of fat 4. Daily values – values listed on daily values tables are … Lowest, highest, average, etc To determine adequacy for daily values, they look at highest value to make sure  people get enough 5. Which of following true about AI Less than EAR – FALSE Can it be established only after EAR – FALSE Does it have to be determined before RDA – FALSE Do all nutrients have AI – FALSE 6. Which of the following can be used to set goals for nutrient intakes EAR? – no because it only hits 50% RDA – yes AI – yes but use RDA over AI 


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