Bio 225 Microbiology 1st week
Bio 225 Microbiology 1st week bio 225
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Shillinglaw on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bio 225 at Tri-County Technical College taught by Spencer Heringa in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Tri-County Technical College.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Microbiology Intro. Impacts of Microorganisms: Good bacteria in the body for digestion (probiotic) Illness Food culture / food industry Decomposition Medicine; antibiotics, insulin, vaccines Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Carbon fixation, nitrogen fixation Pasteur (Pasteurization) kicked-off the Golden Age of microbiology in the mid1800s. During this time, the first antibiotics and vaccines were being created and administered; viruses were being studied for the first time, and one microbiologist Robert Koch was in the midst of identifying disease- causing organisms. The 2 ndGolden Age occurred in the time frame of 1960s – 80s; genetics were the main focal point at this point. Staining Staining helps contrast transparent cells, but kills organisms. Simple Stain= Using 1 dye (cation dye) that’s attracted to bacterial (anion) cells; requires a smear, and allows us to visualize shape/size/pattern Differential Stain= Gram stain (most common); allows us to distinguish gram-positive bacteria from gram-negative bacteria Morphologies: Cocci – Spherical Spirilla – Spiral/wave Bacillus – Rod Vibrio – Curved Spirochete – Slinky spiral All Cells: Cell wall with Cell wall with Cell thick layer of thin layer of Membrane peptidoglyca peptidoglyca DNA/RNA n n Ribosomes Turns purple More Cytoplasm with a gram resistant to stain antibacterial Contains soaps, etc. teichoric acid Turns pink with a gram stain Contains periplasm, lipopolysacch aride – LPS – an endotoxin, and has an outer Gram-Negative Gram-Positive Cells: membrane Cells: Gram staining doesn’t work with mycoplasma due to the fact that it has no cell wall, nor does it work with acid-fast bacteria because they have a waxy cell wall of mycolic acid. Bacterial Additions/Accessories Bacteria can have useful “extras” that some of their other counter parts didn’t have the luxury of developing. Capsule/Slime Layer made of sugars (polysaccharides), and sometimes amino acids o Associated with pathogens Flagella (motility) polar (one tail); Taxis- movement in response to a stimulus o “runs and tumbles” o Requires ATP in order to use and function Fimbriae/Pili (sex pilus) The fimbriae being the attachment points, and pili are generally bacterial sex transfer for DNA, extra-chromosomal DNA transfer (plasmids) Endospores Not associated with reproduction; survival mechanism that allows bacteria to go into a state of dormancy. Typically found only in gram-positive bacteria with high heat resistance and high sustainability; equivilant of bacterial “pregnancy”