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Chapter 5 Early Two Years

by: Elizabeth Rubio

Chapter 5 Early Two Years CDFS 111

Elizabeth Rubio
Long Beach State
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Preschool Child
Lydia Grosso
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Rubio on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFS 111 at California State University Long Beach taught by Lydia Grosso in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
Body size •Birthweight doubles by month four and triples by 1 year •Average weight at birth: 7.5 pounds •Average length: 20 inches Birth catch­up •Small babies experience extra gain to catch up to the norm. Norms •Defined standards of typical performance by which a child's development in a variety of domains can be  measured •These numbers are norms or average measurements; individuals vary Percentile •Number that indicates rank compared to other similar people of the same age •Percentiles range from zero to 100 Head­sparing •Biological mechanism •Protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth •Brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition Sleep specifics vary because of biology and the social environment. •Newborns sleep about 15­17 hours a day, in one­ to three­hour segments. •Newborns' sleep is primarily active sleep. •Newborns have a high proportion of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. Sleep problems •First born infants typically receive more attention and this may contribute to sleep problems. •One­fourth of parents of children under age three reported sleep problems. •Parent reactions to infant sleep shape the baby’s sleep patterns, which in turn affect the parents. •Asian and African mothers worry more about separation; European and North American mothers worry  more about sex. •Pros –Easier response time –Less parental exhaustion –More convenient for breast­feeding •Cons –Higher SID –Ghosts in the nursery phenomenon Exuberance and pruning •Specifics of brain structure and growth depend on genes and maturation, but even more on experience. •Expansion and pruning of dendrites occur for every aspect of early experience. •Unused dendrites whither to allow space between neurons in the brain, allowing more synapses and  thus more complex thinking. Infants need stimulation •Playing, allowing varied sensations, and encouraging movement necessary for brain connections Stress and the brain •Overabundance of stress hormones damages later brain functioning Infants need protection •Shaken baby syndrome is a life­threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back  and forth. This motion ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections. Sensory development •Typically precedes intellectual and motor development Sensation •Response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose) when it detects a stimulus Perception •Mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation Perception follows sensation. •Infants' brains are especially attuned to their own repeated social experiences and perception occurs. •Infant brain and auditory capacity to hear sounds in the usual speech range. •The parts of the cortex dedicated to the senses develop rapidly. Hearing •Develops during the last trimester of pregnancy •Most advanced of the newborn's senses •Speech perception by 4 months after birth Seeing •Least mature sense at birth •Newborns focus between 4 and 30 inches away •Experience and maturation of visual cortex improve shape recognition, visual scanning, and details. •Binocular vision at 3 months Smell and taste •Function at birth •Rapidly adapt to the social world •Related to family and cultural preferences •May have evolutionary function Touch •Sense of touch is acute in infants. •Although all newborns respond to being securely held, soon they prefer specific, touches. Pain and temperature •Pain and temperature are often connected to touch. •Some people assume that even the fetus can feel pain. •Others say that the sense of pain does not mature until months or years later. Most important experiences are perceived with interacting senses  in dynamic systems. •Sensations facilitate social interaction and comfort •By 6 months, infant are able to coordinate the senses Motor skills •Learned abilities to move some part of the body, in actions ranging from a large leap to a flicker of the  eyelid. Course of development •Cephalocaudal (head­down) and proximodistal (center­out) direction Gross motor skills •Physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping Three interacting elements underlying motor skills •Muscle strength •Brain maturation •Practice Fine motor skills •Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing  and picking up a coin •Shaped by culture and opportunity The entire package of sensations and motor skills furthers three goals. •Social interaction •Comfort •Learning All healthy infants develop skills in the same sequence, but the age of acquisition varies. •Variations influences –Genes –Cultural patterns –Nutrition –Caregiving patterns Statistics •10 billion children were born between 1950 and 2010; more than 2 billion of them died before age 5 •World death rate in the first five years of life has dropped about 2 percent per year since 1990 –Improvement in clean water, nourishing food, immunization, medical treatments Immunization •Primes the body's immune system to resist a particular disease •Contributes to reduced mortality and population growth; herd immunity •Successes –Smallpox –Polio –Measles –Rotavirus Immunizations are unsafe for: •Embryos exposed to rubella •Newborns •People with compromised immune systems Problems •No effective vaccine found for AIDS, malaria, cholera, typhoid, and shigellosis •Many rural areas of world not reached Adequate nutrition •For every infant disease (including SIDS), breast­feeding reduces risk and malnutrition increases it,  stunting growth of body and brain. •Breastfed babies are less likely to develop allergies, asthma, obesity, and heart disease. As the infant gets older, the composition of breast milk adjusts to the baby's changing nutritional needs


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