LEC 9 2-17-16
LEC 9 2-17-16 ANT 160
Popular in Cultural Diversity in the Modern World
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Fulton on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Renee Bonzani in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in the Modern World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Dr. Renée Bonzani Lecture Outlines for ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World Historical Linguistics and Early Migrations Language is the cognitive boundary between primates and humans. Great apes have communication systems but no syntax. Historical or Comparative Linguistics • How languages change over time. • Protolanguage = a reconstructed language • Language family = language that derive from the same protolanguage. • Language families exist over large areas because they have spread in different ways from homeland areas. • How might this have happened? • The spread of language families appears to be linked to the spread of archaeological complexes originating in areas where agriculture or food production was first initiated. • Archaeological and biological evidence now indicates that the spread of certain archaeological complexes and languages appears to be due to the increase in population and migration from areas where agriculture originated. • See Bellwood, Peter. 2005. First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. Blackwell Publishing, Maldin, MA. Migration in Prehistoric Times • Migration has been and is a basic aspect of human adaptations. • There are three well researched phases of human migration in prehistory and a fourth in historic times. • Information and maps are from the following unless noted otherwise: Peter Bellwood. 2013. First Migrants: Ancient Migration in Global Perspective. Wiley, Blackwell, Malden, MA. • 1. Migrations of the extinct members of the genus Homo, such as Homo erectus and Neanderthals, after about 2.5 million years ago, within and out of Africa. • 2. Migrations of ancestral modern humans (Homo sapiens) throughout most of the world including Australia and the Americas, between about 120,000 and 25,000 years ago. • 3. Migrations of herders, farmers, and boat builders in a number of separate waves in various parts of the world except Antarctica during the last 10,000 years. How Do We Know That? 1 • 1. Linguistic Evidence. • 2. Archaeological Evidence. • 3. Genetic/Biological Evidence. • Old World Major Language Family Distributions at ca. A.D. 1500 • Centers of the Origins of Agriculture in the Old World and Movement of Peoples, Languages, and Archaeological Complexes Four Major Regions of Food Production and Migrations • 1. The fertile crescent of western Asia. • Origins of wheat, barley, sheep, goats, pigs, cattle, peas, broad beans and lentils. • System spread with human migrations between ca. 8500 and 3000 B.C. • Migrations included to the Middle East, northwestern India, the Mediterranean, temperate Europe, central Asian steppes and semideserts, and North Africa. • Western Asia (Middle East) and Europe: Archaeological Evidence • Western Asia (Middle East) and Europe: Linguistic Evidence • Western Asia (Middle East) and Europe: Genetic/Biological Evidence • Did the origins of agriculture and the Neolithic Revolution spread from the Middle East to Europe through an exchange of technology or through a migration of peoples (gene flow)? • Using principal components analysis and the gene frequencies for certain traits for populations in these regions, CavalliSforza was able to show a gradient in genetic composition which spread from the Middle East to Europe. • This gradient in gene frequencies can be interpreted as evidence of an actual migration of peoples with their technology. • Figure illustrates the most important genetic landscape of Europe (first principal component of the frequencies of 95 genes.) • (From CavalliSforza, L. L. and F. CavalliSforza. 1995. The Great Human Diasporas: The History of Diversity and Evolution. Perseus Books, Cambridge, MA.) • The Rh Factor • Another example: the Rh factor. Substance found in blood of some humans, named after the Macacus rhesus monkey that also contains the substance. • Rh+ more common in the Middle East; Rh prevalent in western Europe. • Genetic gradation of gene frequencies for this factor reveal that people with: • (From CavalliSforza, L. L. and F. CavalliSforza. 1995. The Great Human Diasporas: The History of Diversity and Evolution. Perseus Books, Cambridge, MA.) • 2. The yellow and Yangzi basins of china. • Origins of short grain rice, foxtail and common millet, soybeans, pigs, chicken, indigenous cattle, and the silkworm. 2 • System spread with human migrations between ca. 4000 to 1000 B.C. • Migrations spread to northern India, western China and Tibet and most of Southeast Asia. • East and Southeast Asia (China): Linguistic Evidence • 3. Northern subSaharan Africa • Origins of some yam species, West African species of rice and several species of millet (i.e. pearl millet, finger millet, and sorghum). • System spread between ca. 5000 to 3000 years ago. • Migrations spread through monsoonal regions of subSaharan Africa. • Africa: Linguistic Evidence • • 4. Mesoamerica • Origins of maize, some species of beans and squash, tomatoes, and possibly some species of chile pepper, avocado and turkey. • Systems spread with human migrations after ca. 2000 B.C. • Migrations spread into the US Southwest and the Andes (later into eastern US without evidence of migrations). • New World Major Language Family Distributions at ca. A.D. 1500 • Centers of the Origins of Agriculture in the New World • Four other regions of the origins of food production had less migratory influence. • 1. Western pacific • 2. South Asia • 3. The central Andes • 4. The eastern woodlands of the United States 3
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