Fashion Motivation Chapter 3 Notes
Fashion Motivation Chapter 3 Notes FDM 462
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myesha Johnson-Wheeler on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FDM 462 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Dr. Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Fashion Motivation in Art at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
From the Headlines ● “Bartenders’ makeup stays on, court rules” ● A casino’s requirement for female bartenders to wear makeup is not sexual discrimination. The ruling affirms employers’ right to adopt reasonable dress and grooming standards. The policy required women to wear makeup but men were prohibited from doing so. ● A casino company established specific, detailed guidelines that required female employees to wear makeup. ● A female bartender refused to wear makeup and subsequently was fired. ● What were the casino company’s reasons for the rules governing employee dress? ● What risks does an employee face when deciding to challenge a company dress code? Question to Answer ● What are norms? ● What are the aspects of norms? ● How does each of the aspects of normvary Dress Norm ● Standard that specifies how people should or should not look under given circumstances normative orderfor dress). Identified of Dress Norms ● It is not always easy to identify norms, but wha norm isviolate, thestandard becomes obvious. 10 Aspects of Norms ● Salience ● Content ● Authority ● Origination ● Realistic ● Acceptance ● Properties ● Application ● Transmission ● Sanctions 1.Dress Norms are Salience ● Stand out conspicuously ● May vary based on 1) Other social cues 2) whether Witnesses are present 3) Environmental cues 4) Operative norms for situation 5) Impression formation 6) Group membership. Salient Stand out conspicuously 1)Other Social Cues ● What other peopl arewearing ● Physical Environment ● Activitytaking place ● Age of people present Social Cues: What other people are wearing, age, physical environment 2)Witness ● People are more likely t comply withnorms when other people arepresent ● Among adolescents – eer acceptance – Peer scrutiny – Appearance oriented culture ● Vicarious learning —observing and internalizing the experiences of others. 3)Environmental Cues ● Draw attention to certain norms ● Conspicuously displayed e.g., In some schools, On a restaurant door, At the front of desk of a county jail rules for visitor dress, 4)perative Norms for Situation ● Norms in effect for particular situation ● Context dependent — the social context of which norms are a part determines how salient they are 5) Impression Formation ● Compliance with norms creates impressions of – Appropriateness – Competence – Correctness ● As norms become more salien, impression formationenhanced 6)Group Members ● Some norms are unique to groups ● Group membership can be s alien throughress norms ● Dress norms communicate information about a group through their salience – olice uniform — power to enforce laws – ang dress— allegiance to gang values. 2. Content Negative/Positive Expression ● Stated negatively ● Proscribed, “hould no” ● Stated positively ● Prescribed, “should” Workplace appearance norms were statednegativel. Some norms prescribe Change ● Members of creative professions ● Commitment to be uptodatebecause Change and innovation are part of their occupational role. 2.Content Societal Functional 1) Economic 2) Political 3) Replacement 4) Education 5) Religious. 1)Economic Function ● Production, distribution, and consumption of a society’s resources ● Occupational roles influence dress norms ● Occupational roles are made visible by prescribed dress Workplace Dress Code ● Justified on three businessrelated reasons Presenting a professional or identifiable public appearance Promoting a positive working environment and limiting distractions Ensuring safety while working 2)Political Function ● Actions by the government on behalf of its citizens such as Establishinlaws and norms Providingsocial control Ensuringconomic stability Settingoals Protecting againsoutside treats Laws ● Norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials ● Rules to control production, distribution, and consumption of dangerous products e.g., CPSC(consumer product safety commission) recommended Socalled Creepy Cape Halloween costumes were recalled by the CPSC 3) eplacement Function ● Deals with the necessity of replacing each osociety’s members when they die ● Or children replace current members of society ● Dress norms confirm thegenderspecific contribution men and women make to the replacement function Men should not dress like women ” Women should not dress like men ” 4)Educational Function ● Efforts, usually by more mature members of a society, to teach each new generation the beliefs, the way of life, the values, and some portion of the knowledge and skills of the group ● School is one agent of cultural transmission with a dual thrust: development of individuality and socialization of students 5) Religious Function ● Foster an understanding of an individual’s relationship and responsibility to others in living together in community ● Promote social cohesion ● Provide emotional support during stressful times and at important life stages 3.Norms vary by source of authority 1) Rational 2) Traditional 3) Charismatic 4) Public opinion 1) Rational authority • Conviction that a specific individual has a clearly defined right and duty to uphold rules in an impersonal manner • Belief in rules and the power of an office holder to issue commands • Provides the basis for occupational requirements. 2)Traditional authority • The customs of the past legitimate the present • Dress taboos —norms that carry the connotation of being morally or ethically wrong e.g., 3) Charismatic Authority • Belief in specific and exceptional characteristics of an individual • Fashion designers, supermodels, TV personalities, entertainers, athletes => Fashion norms e.g., Kate Moss Cultural Icon • Someone who embodies abstract cultural ideas in a tangible and visible manner. 4) Public Opinion • Attitudes and beliefs that are widespread among members of a society •Opinion leaders are socially acknowledged experts whom the public turns to for advice • What would people think? • Sensitivity to public opinion—desire for social approval 4. Norms vary by origination Formal/informal • How did the norm come into being? • Formal enactment—deriving from a political function • informal enactment—grow out of tradition; develop unofficially • Dress customs—grow out of tradition e.g., 5. Realism • Realism —the faithful portrayal of reality • Norms may vary in a spectrum from real to ideal. • Ideal norms—norms that members of a society aspire to attain • Real norms—norms that members of a society actually can attain. 6. Degree of Acceptance Voluntary/Mandatory • Depending on authority that legitimates a norm, it may vary in degree of acceptance from voluntary to mandatory. • Voluntary—may choose whether to abide by the norm • Mandatory —acceptance is required and enforced. • Etiquette rules — legitimized by an authority on manners—voluntary • Folkways —norms that allow a wide range of interpretation as long as certain boundaries are not exceeded • Mores strongly held norms that usually have a moral connotation and are based on the central values of the culture; Mandatory acceptance 7. Norms vary by properties Specificity/flexibility/clarity 1) Specificity – Vague – Specific, detailed Fashion: A vague norm A Sociocultural phenomenon in which a preference is shared by a large number of people for a particular style • Fads—fashion changes characterized by a rapid rise in popularity followed quickly by an abrupt drop in popularity • Fashions and fads are transitory norms • Widely dispersed • Do not last long enough to become customs Specifically stated norms • White shoe rule —specific period of time during which white shoes can properly be worn (between Memorial Day and Labor Day) • Correct width of a man’s tie is about 3 inches. 2) Flexibility Rigid/flexible •Rigid norms—require exact conformity • Enacted and enforced by those in political power e.g., School dress codes • Flexible norms—allow leeway in conformity; some room for freedom of action e.g., 3) Clarity Explicit/Implicit • Explicit—clearly delineated in law books, regulations, and codes • Implicit—rarely verbalized but “understood” ways of how people should look • Nonverbal messages of appropriate appearances 8. Norms vary by application to groups/statuses • We share many norms because we are all members of society • Any specific norm can vary in its application to different groups 1)Groups: • Primary group: People who interact regularly facetoface • Secondary group: More formally organized Focus on specialized needs or goals of the members Peer groups: Made up of social equals Acquaintances or friends similar to one another in age, education, social class, or interests – who Interact socially on a regular basis Everyone belongs to many groups • Ethnic groups Occupational groups • Religious groups Social classes • Being a member means – Submitting to group control – Giving up come individual freedom • Without conformity, there would be no groups 2) Status • An individual’s position in a social hierarchy • Ascribed status: Assigned due to birth or other factors • Not under an individual’s control • Achieved status: Obtained due to effort or choice 9. Mode of Transmission • Primary socialization • Secondary socialization. 1)Primary socialization • Refers to Interactions through which a child initially learns a language, • adopts basic cultural norms and values, • behaves in terms of these norms and values, • and forms a culturally appropriate social identity. Gender appropriate dress • Refers to an individual’s subjective feelings of maleness or femaleness Gender Understanding • Develops between ages 3 and 6 • Know gender is defined by genitals, not external appearance Gender Constancy • Know that gender does not change with external appearance • When a boy puts on a dress, he is still a boy Gender Stability • Know their gender was there when they were born and • It will stay the same when they grow up Gender Role • Behaviors or characteristics that are attributed to one gender or another •Culturally determined 2) Secondary socialization • Refers to Processes by which individuals learn new statuses or roles • Occupational dress • e.g., 10. Sanctions Administered • Positive norm implies positive sanctions • Negative norm implies negative sanctions • Widely accepted norm results in sanctions of extreme magnitude Interrelationship of norm aspects • Refers to interaction and interdependence of norms and variations of those aspects • interaction of norm aspects can – Strengthen norms –increase power or force – Supplant norms—replace with new norm – Undermine norms—weaken norm by removing its foundation
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