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Fashion Motivation Chapter 3 Notes

by: Myesha Johnson-Wheeler

Fashion Motivation Chapter 3 Notes FDM 462

Marketplace > Southern Illinois University Carbondale > Art > FDM 462 > Fashion Motivation Chapter 3 Notes
Myesha Johnson-Wheeler
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

These notes cover all of Chapter 3
Fashion Motivation
Dr. Lee
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myesha Johnson-Wheeler on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FDM 462 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Dr. Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Fashion Motivation in Art at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
From the Headlines  ● “Bartenders’ makeup stays on, court rules”  ● A casino’s requirement for female bartenders to wear makeup is not sexual  discrimination. The ruling affirms employers’ right to adopt reasonable dress and  grooming standards. The policy required women to wear makeup but men were  prohibited from doing so.   ● A casino company established specific, detailed guidelines that required female  employees to wear makeup.   ● A female bartender refused to wear makeup and subsequently was fired.   ● What were the casino company’s reasons for the rules governing employee dress?  ● What risks does an employee face when deciding to challenge a company dress code?    Question to Answer  ● What are ​ norms?  ● What are the ​aspects of norms?  ● How does ​ each ​of the aspects of normvary​    Dress Norm  ●  ​Standard​ that specifies how people should or should not look under given  circumstances​ normative order​for dress).      Identified of Dress Norms  ● It is not always easy to identify norms, but wha norm isviolate, thestandard  becomes ​ obvious.     10 Aspects of Norms  ● Salience   ● Content   ● Authority   ● Origination   ● Realistic   ● Acceptance   ● Properties   ● Application   ● Transmission   ● Sanctions    1.Dress Norms are Salience   ● Stand out conspicuously   ● May vary based on   1) Other social cues   2) whether Witnesses are present   3) Environmental cues   4) Operative norms for situation  5) Impression formation   6) Group membership.    Salient Stand out conspicuously    1)​Other Social Cues  ● What ​ other peopl arewearing  ● Physical Environment   ● Activitytaking place  ● Age​  of people present    Social Cues: What other people are wearing, age, physical environment    2)Witness  ● People are more likely t comply withnorms when other people arepresent  ● Among adolescents   – ​eer acceptance   – Peer scrutiny   – Appearance oriented culture   ● Vicarious learning —observing and internalizing the experiences of others.      3)Environmental Cues   ● Draw attention to certain norms   ● Conspicuously displayed e.g., In some schools, On a restaurant door, At the front of  desk of a county jail rules for visitor dress,      4)​​perative Norms for Situation   ● Norms in effect for particular situation  ● Context dependent​  — the social context of which norms are a part determines how  salient they are      5) Impression Formation  ● Compliance with norms creates​ impressions of  – Appropriateness  – Competence   – Correctness   ● As norms become more​  salien, impression formationenhanced      6)Group Members  ● Some norms are ​ unique to groups   ● Group membership can be s ​alien through​ress norms   ● Dress norms communicate information about a group through their salience   – ​olice uniform — power to enforce laws   – ​ang dress—​ allegiance to gang values.    2. Content  Negative/Positive Expression  ● Stated ​negatively   ● Proscribed, “​hould no”   ● Stated ​positively   ● Prescribed, “should”  Workplace appearance norms were statednegativel.      Some norms prescribe​  Change   ● Members of ​ creative professions   ● Commitment to be ​ up­to­datebecause Change and innovation are part of their  occupational role.     2.​Content   Societal Functional   1) Economic   2) Political   3) Replacement   4) Education   5) Religious.    1)Economic Function   ● Production, distribution, and consumption of a society’s resources   ● Occupational roles influence ​dress norms   ● Occupational roles are made visible by ​prescribed dress      Workplace Dress Code  ● Justified on three business­related reasons   ­Presenting a professional or identifiable public appearance   ­Promoting​ a positive working environment and limiting distractions   ­Ensuring safety while working       2)Political Function  ● Actions by the government on behalf of its citizens such as   ­ Establishinlaws and norms   ­ Providingsocial control   ­ Ensuring​conomic stability  ­ Settingoals   ­ Protecting againsoutside treats       Laws  ● Norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials   ● Rules to control production, distribution, and consumption of dangerous products e.g.,  ­ CPSC(consumer product safety commission) recommended   ­ So­called Creepy Cape Halloween costumes were recalled by the CPSC      3) ​eplacement Function   ● Deals with the necessity of replacing each osociety’s members​ when they die   ● Or children replace current members of society   ● Dress norms​ confirm thegender­specific contribution men and women make to the  replacement function    Men should not dress like women​ ”  Women should not dress like men​ ”        4)​Educational Function  ● Efforts, usually by more mature members of a society, to teach each new generation the  beliefs, the way of life, the values, and some portion of the knowledge and skills of the  group   ● School​  is one agent of cultural transmission with ​ a dual thrust: development of  individuality and socialization of students        5) Religious Function  ● Foster an understanding of an individual’s relationship and responsibility to others in  living together in community   ● Promote ​ social cohesion   ● Provide ​ emotional support​  during stressful times and at important life stages    3.Norms vary by source of authority   1) Rational   2) Traditional   3) Charismatic   4) Public opinion    1) Rational authority   • Conviction that a specific individual has a clearly defined right and duty to uphold rules in an  impersonal manner   • Belief in rules and the power of an office holder to issue commands  • Provides the basis for occupational requirements.      2)Traditional authority   • The customs of the past legitimate the present  • Dress taboos —norms that carry the connotation of being morally or ethically wrong e.g.,     3) Charismatic Authority   • Belief in specific and exceptional characteristics of an individual   • Fashion designers, supermodels, TV personalities, entertainers, athletes => Fashion norms  e.g., Kate Moss       Cultural Icon   • Someone who embodies abstract cultural ideas in a tangible and visible manner.      4) Public Opinion   • Attitudes and beliefs that are widespread among members of a society  •Opinion leaders are socially acknowledged experts whom the public turns to for advice  • What would people think?   • Sensitivity to public opinion—desire for social approval      4. Norms vary by origination  Formal/informal  • How did the norm come into being?   • Formal enactment—deriving from a political function   • informal enactment—grow out of tradition; develop unofficially   • Dress customs—grow out of tradition e.g.,       5. Realism  • Realism —the faithful portrayal of reality   • Norms may vary in a spectrum  from real to ideal.   • Ideal norms—norms that members of a society aspire to attain   • Real norms—norms that members of a society actually can attain.        6. Degree of Acceptance  Voluntary/Mandatory  • Depending on authority that legitimates a norm, it may vary in degree of acceptance from  voluntary to mandatory.   • Voluntary—may choose whether to abide by the norm   • Mandatory —acceptance is required and enforced.   • Etiquette rules — legitimized by an authority on manners—voluntary   • Folkways —norms that allow a wide range of interpretation as long as certain boundaries are  not exceeded   • Mores ­ strongly held norms that usually have a moral connotation and are based on the  central values of the culture; Mandatory acceptance        7. Norms vary by properties  Specificity/flexibility/clarity   1) Specificity   – Vague  – Specific, detailed     Fashion: A vague norm   A Sociocultural phenomenon  in which a preference is shared by a large number of people for  a particular style   • Fads—fashion changes characterized by a rapid rise in popularity followed quickly by an  abrupt drop in popularity   • Fashions and fads are transitory norms  • Widely dispersed  • Do not last long enough to become customs        Specifically stated norms  • White shoe rule —specific period of time during which white shoes can properly be worn  (between Memorial Day and Labor Day)   • Correct width of a man’s tie is about 3 inches.       2) Flexibility   Rigid/flexible   •Rigid norms—require exact conformity   • Enacted and enforced by those in political power e.g., School dress codes   • Flexible norms—allow leeway in conformity; some room for freedom of action e.g.,       3) Clarity Explicit/Implicit  • Explicit—clearly delineated in law books, regulations, and codes   • Implicit—rarely verbalized but “understood” ways of how people should look   • Nonverbal messages of appropriate appearances      8. Norms vary by application to groups/statuses   • We share  many norms because we are all members of society  • Any specific norm can vary in its application to different groups       1)Groups:  • Primary group: People who interact regularly face­to­face   • Secondary group: More formally organized Focus on specialized needs or goals of the  members   Peer groups: Made up of social equals   ­ Acquaintances or friends similar to one another in age, education, social class, or interests –  who Interact socially on a regular basis        Everyone belongs to many groups  • Ethnic groups Occupational groups   • Religious groups Social classes   • Being a member means   – Submitting to group control  – Giving up come individual freedom   • Without conformity, there would be no groups       2) Status  • An individual’s position in a social hierarchy   • Ascribed status: Assigned due to birth or other factors   • Not under an individual’s control   • Achieved status: Obtained due to effort or choice      9. Mode of Transmission   • Primary socialization   • Secondary socialization.       1)Primary socialization   • Refers to Interactions through which a child initially learns a language,   • adopts basic cultural norms and values,   • behaves in terms of these norms and values,   • and forms a culturally appropriate social identity.       Gender appropriate dress   • Refers to an individual’s subjective feelings of maleness or femaleness      Gender Understanding  • Develops between ages 3 and 6   • Know gender is defined by genitals, not external appearance           Gender Constancy  • Know that gender does not change with external appearance   • When a boy puts on a dress, he is still a boy      Gender Stability   • Know their gender was there when they were born and   • It will stay the same when they grow up      Gender Role   • Behaviors or characteristics that are attributed to one gender or another   •Culturally determined      2) Secondary socialization   • Refers to Processes by which individuals learn new statuses or roles  • Occupational dress  • e.g.,       10. Sanctions Administered  • Positive norm implies positive sanctions   • Negative norm implies negative sanctions   • Widely accepted norm results in sanctions of extreme magnitude        Interrelationship of norm aspects  • Refers to interaction and interdependence of norms and variations of those aspects  • interaction of norm aspects can   – Strengthen norms –increase power or force   – Supplant norms—replace with new norm   – Undermine norms—weaken norm by removing its foundation 


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