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Fundamentals of Interpersonal Communication/CMST14900

by: Alisar Notetaker

Fundamentals of Interpersonal Communication/CMST14900 14900

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Language > 14900 > Fundamentals of Interpersonal Communication CMST14900
Alisar Notetaker
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These notes include: - Definition of communication - Challenges faced in communication - Types of communication models(linear/interactive/transactional etc). - The advantages/disadvantages ...
Fundamentals of Interpersonal communication
Ozge heck
Class Notes
cmst, communication, Fundamental, Interpersonal, Maslow, Psychology, Linear, interactive, transactional, advantages, disadvantages, similarities, hierarchy, Relationship, competence, Culture, Gender, sexual, orientation, online, social media




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisar Notetaker on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 14900 at Ithaca College taught by Ozge heck in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Interpersonal communication in Language at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
ALL NOTES ARE FROM CLASS DISCUSSIONS, TEXTBOOK, AND PROFESSORS PPTS/NOTES. FUNDAMENTALS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION WEEK I COMMUNICATION: ­ How we create and exchange messages with others. ­ As defined by the National Communication Association. “Is the process through which people use messages to generate meanings within and across contexts, cultures,  channels, and media”.   Importance of communication?  ­ It determines our relationship outcomes.  ­ By understanding what communication is and how we communicate we can improve our  own decision making and the communication that flows from these decisions. CHALLENGES FACE IN COMMUNICATING:  1. Stuttering  2. Stage fright/performance anxiety  3. Repetition of certain words 4. Accents  5. Dynamic of the group – overpowering/shy, (personality), connections with others.  6. Commitment level – lack of commitment 7. Language barrier.  8. Using media  9. Interruptions  10. Language  11. Dynamic/familiarity  12. Personal characteristics 13. Body language­ eye contact 14. Confidence 15. Tone 16. Speech/hearing impairment  WEEK II ALL NOTES ARE FROM CLASS DISCUSSIONS, TEXTBOOK, AND PROFESSORS PPTS/NOTES. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION MODELS LINEAR MODEL OF COMMUNICATION (1) ­ The linear model views communication as a one­way or linear process in which the  speaker speaks and the listener listens.  ­ Laswell’s (1948) model was based on the five questions below, which effectively  describe how communication works. 1  INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION MODEL (2) ­ Was developed by Schramm (1954). ­ Process involving senders and receivers but transmission is influenced by two  additional factors: feedback and fields of experience.  ­ Feedback from the receiver and their acknowledgement of the message. ­ Fields of experience: the beliefs, attitudes, values, language barriers, and experiences that each participant brings to a communication event. o People with similar fields of experience more likely to understand each other. ­ Authority doesn’t necessarily matter.  TRANSACTIONAL COMMUNICATION MODEL (3) ­ Suggests that communication is fundamentally multidirectional.  ­ Each participant equally influences the communication behavior of the participants.  (Miller & Steinberg, 1975).  ­ The transactional model shows that the elements in communication are  interdependent (both parties contribute to the meaning).  ­ Each person in the communication act is both a speaker and a listener, and can be  simultaneously sending and receiving messages. ­ Communication is a transaction when each person plays an active role as  communicators 1 ALL NOTES ARE FROM CLASS DISCUSSIONS, TEXTBOOK, AND PROFESSORS PPTS/NOTES. ­ It is an ongoing process. You are changing, the people with whom you are  communicating are changing, and your environment is also continually changing as  well. ­ Each person in the communication process reacts depending on factors such as their  background, prior experiences, attitudes, cultural beliefs and self­esteem. Table 1.1 Communication Models MODEL EXAMPLES STRENGTH WEAKNESS Linear o Text and instant o Simple and  o Doesn’t adequately  messaging,  straightforward describe most face to face email, wall  or phone conversations.  posts, scripted  o The main flaw in the  public speeches. linear model is that it  o TV/Radio  depicts communication as message,  a one­way process where  Lecturer &  speakers only speak and  Students,  never listen. It also  Visual audio &  implies that listeners  listen and never speak or  receiver.  send messages. Interactive o Classroom  o Captures a broad  o Neglects the active role  instruction,  variety of  that receivers often play  group  communication  in constructing meanings. presentations,  forms team coworker  meetings Transactiona o Any encounter  o Intuitively captures  o Doesn’t apply to many  l (most  what most people  forms of online  commonly face­ think of as  communication, such as  to face) in  interpersonal  email, Facebook posts  which you and  communication and text messaging.  others jointly  create  communication  meaning.  Similarities:  o No less than 2 people.  o Communicate a message.  o Always a channel.  ALL NOTES ARE FROM CLASS DISCUSSIONS, TEXTBOOK, AND PROFESSORS PPTS/NOTES. o These 3 models represent an evolution of thought regarding the nature of communication,  from a relatively simplistic depiction of communication as a linear process to one that views  communication as a complicated process that is mutually crafted.  ALL NOTES ARE FROM CLASS DISCUSSIONS, TEXTBOOK, AND PROFESSORS PPTS/NOTES. Interpersonal Communication:  o Dynamic form of communication between two (or more) people in which the messages  exchanged significantly influence their thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and relationships. o Is dynamic, most often transactional, primarily dyadic (involves pairs of people, or  dyads) & creates impact.  o When we focus on our similarities with someone we have an I­Thou relationship.  o When we focus on our differences we have an I­It relationship (you regard people as  “objects which we observe, that are there for our use and exploitation” (Buber, 1965,  p.24) Principles of Interpersonal Communication 1. Conveys content and relationship    information  – Meta­communication is communication about communication. – E.g. “I actually was joking when I sent you that text­message” 2. Can be intentional or unintentional 3. Is irreversible  4. Is dynamic  5. Is intertwined with ethics and moral principles • Relationship information primarily happens with nonverbal cues: vocal tone, pitch,  volume; facial expressions and eye contact, hand gestures, position in relation to the  listener, and posture.  • Relationship information strongly influences how people interpret content information.  Interpersonal Communication is irreversible • Each interpersonal interaction we have shapes our future communication. Before  expressing a potentially hurtful thought, consider what outcomes you are setting in  motion. • Activity: Were there times when you said, “I wish I could take that back”? Can apologies help? What makes an apology more or less effective? ALL NOTES ARE FROM CLASS DISCUSSIONS, TEXTBOOK, AND PROFESSORS PPTS/NOTES. MOTIVES FOR INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: 1. Physical 2. Safety 3. Social 4. Self-esteem 5. Self-actualization INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION FULFILLS THREE TYPES OF GOALS: 1. Self­presentation goals=> • Presenting yourself in a certain way you want others to see you  2. Instrumental goals • Practical aims you want to achieve through your interpersonal encounter 3. Relationship goals • Building, maintaining, or terminating bonds Research in Interpersonal Communication • Research (What characteristic of an online message makes it a ‘flame’?) • Theory • Qualitative approaches • Quantitative approaches   • Hypotheses What Is Interpersonal Communication Competence? Interpersonal communication competence: consistently communicating in ways that are  appropriate, effective, and ethical. Who is your role model for a competent communicator? Understanding Competence:  Communication skills are repeatable goal­directed behaviors and behavioral patterns that  you routinely practice in your interpersonal encounters and relationships.  Appropriateness is the degree to which your communication matches situational,  relational, and cultural expectations. ALL NOTES ARE FROM CLASS DISCUSSIONS, TEXTBOOK, AND PROFESSORS PPTS/NOTES. •We judge how appropriate our communication is through self­monitoring. •High self­monitors follow expectations while low self­monitors “act like  themselves.”   Effectiveness: The ability to use communication to accomplish self­presentational, instrumental, and relational goals. Ethics is the set of moral principles that guide our behavior toward others. Improving Your Competence Online: Online Communication: refers to any interaction by means of social networking sites (such as  Facebook), e­mail, text­ or instant­messaging, Skype, chatrooms, and even massive multiplayer  video games. 1. Choose the appropriate medium. 2. Don’t assume online communication is more efficient. 3. Presume posts are public. 4. Remember posts are permanent. 5. Practice creating drafts. Issues in Interpersonal Communication 1. Culture 2. Gender and sexual orientation 3. Online communication 4. The dark side of interpersonal relationships


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