Psychology 1113 PSY 1113
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elsa Finley-Combs on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Introduction to Psychology, Chapter 5 Notes, Week 5 -Sleep- Consciousness: Level of awakeness and awareness of one’s surroundings. -High level: Fully awake and aware, controlled processing (using many mental resources) -Low level:Automatic process (few mental resources, ex: casual speaking, walking) -Altered Level: Hypnosis, hallucinogenic drugs. Not awake or able to react normally. -Subconscious awareness: Dreaming -Non-Conscious awareness: Being in a coma or knocked unconscious. Circadian Rhythm:Abeing’s 24 hour sleep/wake cycle responding to changes in light. SeasonalAffective Disorder:Astage of depression that occurs at the same time each year, usually in winter. *Hormone treatments and spending time outside will help Why do we sleep? Humans sleep at night because we don’t have night vision to survive in darkness. Sleep preserves memories of things learned throughout the day. R.E.M. (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep Characteristics -Vivid Dreams -Body muscles unable to move, “paralyzed” -Increased irregular heartbeat -Body’s internal workings function like person is awake. Rebound Effect:Aperson spends more time in REM sleep after a night of sleep deprivation Sleep Disturbances -Insomnia: Having trouble falling asleep/staying asleep -SleepApnea: Having trouble staying asleep due to breathing problems (EX: Shallow breathing, lapses in breathing) -Sleepwalking/Sleeptalking: Common in young children 6-12 years, more present in boys, occurs in Stages 3 and 4 of sleep. People don’t know what causes it, that runs in the family. If prone to sleepwalking, stress, drugs, and alcohol induce it more. People don’t remember the incident and they are often hard to wake up. Usually not dangerous, unless the person is in a different layout where there are objects that can hurt them (EX: Falling down stairs) People have committed murder while sleepwalking, and they can sometimes get off using it as a reason. -Night Terrors: Don’t happen during REM sleep. Usually present in children ages 3-8. Kids will wake up screaming, shocked, crying. Often won’t remember the episode in the morning. -Narcolepsy: People will fall asleep in the middle of conversations, activities. Usually occurs during a quiet activity. The person will fall directly into REM sleep very quickly. Are not aware they fall asleep at such a rapid rate. -Hypnagogic/Hypnopompic Hallucinations: Hypnagogic occurs when people fall asleep, hypnopompic occurs when people are waking up. Often times people feel paralyzed and have hallucinations where they see things on the walls or on their bodies. Can be very terrifying. -Cataplexy: People lose muscle use, quite extreme. Person can fall over because muscles in legs and body give out. This often happens in response to something really funny or really sad, or another very emotional trigger. -Dreams- -Dreams can often be seen as a “manifestation of real life” Two types of Dream Content Sigmund Freud believed that dreams would hint at what a person’s unconscious desires were, believed that dreams were symbolic. Manifest Content: What happened in the dream, what the person remembers Latent Content: Symbolism of manifest content Cognitive Theory: Dreams take a person’s already formed memories, thoughts, and encountered problems and use them in the dream. Activation Synthesis Theory: Random memories put together in a storyline by the brain. Nightmares: The brain is testing out theories for how to handle possible emergencies.Aperson is put through scary situations to see how well they can handle it. Brain is preparing itself and body for an emergency. -Drugs- Tolerance: The more you take of a substance the more you need of it to achieve the same effect. Drug Dependence Physical: Physical pain and physical symptoms from drug withdrawal. Psychological: Emotional need, a person feels like they need the substance, but does not have physical symptoms. *Some drugs have one type of symptoms or both. Drugs activate dopamine, a brain chemical involved with both reward and addiction. Dopamine wants you to repeat the use of drugs in order to feel better. In addiction cases, drugs stimulate the limbic system to only want more dopamine from drugs. The frontal lobe shuts down and people lose their behavioral control over drug use.