New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Fresh Meats, Growth and Development, properties of meat

by: Madison Paige

Fresh Meats, Growth and Development, properties of meat FST 461

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > Nutrition and Food Sciences > FST 461 > Fresh Meats Growth and Development properties of meat
Madison Paige
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Fresh Meats

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Fresh Meats notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover part of the 'properties of meat' lecture notes.
Fresh Meats
Dwight Loveday
Class Notes




Popular in Fresh Meats

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Paige on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FST 461 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dwight Loveday in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Fresh Meats in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences


Reviews for Fresh Meats, Growth and Development, properties of meat


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/17/16
Growth and Development of Meat Animals Define growth: Webster dictionary: a gradual development towards maturity, a degree of increase in size, weight or power, increase in mass per unit over time. Hammond (1940): increasing weight until mature size is reached Brody (1945): a biological synthesis, production of new biological units, may include 1, or all 3 processes, cell multiplication, cell enlargement or incorporation of material taken in from the surrounding environment. Meat Science: normal process of increase in size, produced by accretion of tissues in similar constitution to those of the original tissue or organ -due to the following biological processes 1) hypertrophy: enlargement of existing cells 2) hyperplasia: multiplication of new cells within the body 3) accretionary growth: the increase in extracellular material The difference between fattening versus growth -true growth: the increase in structural tissues such as muscle, bone, and organs in the body -fattening increase in adipose tissue in the body Define development: Hammond (1940): changes in body conformation and shape and its various functions and faculties come into full being Brody (1945): directive coordination of the diverse process into an adult being Meat Science: progression from a lower to a higher stage of complexity, as well as a gradual expansion in size. -changes at cellular level allows tissues to have different functions as growth occurs complex functions throughout the body Growth and Development Processes: Differentiation: -process that cells and organs go through to acquire individual characteristics -embryo cells turn into muscle cells, brain cells, skin cells, liver cells, and ect throughout the body -results in chemical and morphological heterogeneity Morphogenesis: -the organization of dividing cells into specific organs in the body -gives unique characteristics to the cells Maturation: -the overall process of becoming fully developed -mature tissues have gained the highest level of maturity -different tissues and body parts mature at different rates at different times (ossification of cartilage to bone, carcass tissues change over time) Senescence -tissues and organs no longer are in the most complex form -degenerative changes occur without complete repair or replacement of the organ or tissue Phases of Growth: -growth begins with the fertilization of the ovum -prenatal: conception to birth, the general gestation period -postnatal: birth to maturity -all changes are dependent upon changes in protein synthesis. Prenatal Growth: -Ovum Phase: -fertilization to granulation (which is the first 3 cell layers formed) -implantation into the wall of the uterus -ovum is spherical -14 days long -Embryonic phase: -lasts about 25-45 days -tissues, organs, and systems are differentiated in the body -not much of a size increase -Fetal phase: -embryonic phase to birth -differential growth rates of tissues -essential tissues (CNS, circulatory system, liver, kidneys) all develop Postnatal Growth: -growth usually described as an increase in size over a period of time -typically in meat animals this means weight and age -graph that describes the growth spurts: curve varies due to specie, sex, and other animal factors (large frame vs small frame cattle) Postnatal Growth Phases: I. -slow growth of all tissues -organ>bone>muscle>fat -15-20% of total animal growth involved II. -75% of total growth -most rapid phase, including puberty -latter part of the phase includes organs maturing, bone growth completing, and muscle growth nearing completion, fat is beginning to be deposited III. -80-90% of total growth -organs and bone are completed -80-90% muscle growth completed -rapid fat deposition IV. -90-95% is fat -5-10% muscle Postnatal Growth: -very important economic consideration -graph: weight basis on animal -bone: early developing, little increase in skeleton -muscle: rapid increase, major component Bone: -early development, little increase in skeleton Muscle: -rapid increase, major component Fat: -very little at birth, develops slowly and then accelerates when muscle growth begins to decline Bone: -early developing -decreases over time -low but relatively consistent percentage of everything Muscle: -high at birth -decreases over time -even though fat is deposited during all phases, muscle weight and gain is overall higher Fat: -lowest at birth -late in development a very significant component because muscle deposition slows and feed nutrients are stored as fat -most variable tissue -water and protein% decrease and fat% increases How does this affect carcass composition: -at the same age, late maturing are physiologically less mature than early maturing -at the same weight, late maturing are physiologically less mature, leaner than early maturing How do animals increase muscle and fat mass? Myogenesis: molecular, biochemical and morphological events that are involved in the formation of muscle fibers Lipogenesis/adipogenesis: molecular, biochemical and morphological events that are involved in the formation of adipose tissue Myogenesis: -during the first 2/3 of the embryonic and fetal prenatal stage, most of the muscle fiber increase is due to hyperplasia, increase in the muscle fiber number -during the last 1/3 of the prenatal period, most of the increase in muscle mass is due to hypertrophy, increase in muscle size -postnatal muscle growth results in the greatest increase in muscle -postnatal muscle growth achieved primarily by hypertrophy -muscles grow in both diameter and length -muscles increase in diameter by increasing number and size of myofibrils -achieved via longitudinal splitting of myofibril and enlargement by additional myofibrils -muscle length increases by adding new sarcomeres and increasing sarcomere length -Satellite cells are source of new nuclei for myofibers -Capable of proliferating, differentiating and fusing with muscle fibers -Provides DNA for protein synthesis and growth -Satellite cells are responsible for the formation of new myofibers during postnatal growth Lipogenesis/Adipogenesis -Adipose cell accumulates lipid; expand from 20 um to 120 um (300 um in obese animals) -Called adipose tissue or fat depot sites -Occurs through both adipose cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy Deposition of fat in meat animals • Fat depots at specific animal locations • Adipose tissue filled with triglyceride • Fat depots develop at different times and at different rates • Major fat depots are: visceral, subcutaneous, intermuscular and intramuscular Visceral fat: – Earliest to develop – Located in body cavity – Mesenteric (lace) fat with intestines – Caul fat around stomach – Perirenal (kidney) fat around kidneys – Abdominal, leaf and pelvic fats Subcutaneous Fat: – External or back fat – Second to develop – Develops in 3 layers • Outer: first to develop; insulation for animal • Middle: second to develop, most active metabolically; form greatest amount • Inner: last to develop and least developed; sometimes difficult to see Intermuscular fat: – Generally, third to develop; some specie may be second – Located around and between muscles – Also called seam fat Intramuscular fat: – Last to develop – Deposited within the muscle between muscle bundles within the perimysium – Contributes the least to the total amount of fat – Also termed marbling


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.