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Vocabulary 1 Notes

by: Naida Adams

Vocabulary 1 Notes PSYC 1000

Naida Adams
GPA 2.4

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Introductory Psychology
Christyn Dolbier
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naida Adams on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Christyn Dolbier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
Chapter 1 Vocabulary:     Term:  Definition:  Connection:  structuralism  early school of thought promoted    by Wundt and Titchener; used  introspection to reveal the  structure of the human mind.  functionalism  early school of thought promoted    by James and influenced by  Darwin; explored how mental and  behavioral processes  function—how they enable the  organism to adapt, survive, and  flourish.  behaviorism  the view that psychology (1)    should be an objective science  that (2) studies behavior without  reference to mental processes.  Most research psychologists  today agree with (1) but not with  (2).  humanistic psychology  historically significant perspective   that emphasized the growth  potential of healthy people.   cognitive neuroscience  the interdisciplinary study of the    brain activity linked with cognition  (including perception, thinking,  memory, and language).  psychology  the science of behavior and    mental processes.  nature­nurture issue  the longstanding controversy  The effect that...  over the relative contributions  natural (sounds likenature→  that genes and experience make  genes​  are naturally in humans),  to the development of  and ​you can​experience​  nature  psychological traits and  make to the development of  behaviors. Today’s psychological  psychological traits.  science sees traits and behaviors  issue→ c ​ontroversy   arising from the interaction of    nature and nurture.   natural selection  the principle that, among the range  selection (to pick)→among the  of inherited trait variations, those range of   contributing to reproduction and  natural (you naturally have)→  survival will most likely be passed  inherited trait variations   on to succeeding generations.   will be passed to generations  levels of analysis  the differing complementary  Views→ from different levels   views, from biological to  BIOLOGICAL   psychological to social­cultural,  PSYCHOLOGICAL  SOCIAL­CULTURAL    for analyzing any given  Analyzing (sounds like analysis)  phenomenon.  any giving phenomenon  biopsychosocial approach  an integrated approach that  bio­ → biological   incorporates biological,  ­psycho­ → psychological   psychological, and social­cultural  ­social → social­cultural   levels of analysis.    basic research  pure science that aims to  basic​→ basic/​pure science  increase the scientific knowledge  research→ scientific  base.  knowledge base​  (sounds like  basic​)  applied research  scientific study that aims to solve    practical problems  counseling psychology  a branch of psychology that  counseling​ → (​like a school  assists people with problems in  counselor​)   living (often related to school,  assists people with problems  work, or relationships) and in  in living (often related to  achieving greater well­being.  school, work, relationships)   clinical psychology:  a branch of psychology that  clinic(sounds likeclinical) →  studies, assesses, and treats  you go to the clinic to be  people with psychological  assessed and treated for   disorders.  Psychology→ psychological  disorders   psychiatry:  a branch of medicine dealing with  Think ​ psychiatric hospital  psychological disorders;  practiced by physicians who  sometimes provide medical (for  example, drug) treatments as  well as psychological therapy.     positive psychology  the scientific study of human  functioning, with the goals of  discovering and promoting  strengths and virtues that help  individuals and communities to  thrive.    hindsight bias:  the tendency to believe, after  hind​→ (sounds like behind→  learning an outcome, that one  after the outcome  would have foreseen it. (Also  sight→ already have foreseen  known as the ​ I­knew­it­all­along  (sounds like see→ ​sight) it.  phenomenon.) ​  critical thinking  thinking that does not blindly    accept arguments and  conclusions. Rather, it examines  assumptions, discerns hidden  values, evaluates evidence, and  assesses conclusions.  theory  an explanation using an    integrated set of principles that  organizes observations and  predicts behaviors or events.   hypothesis:  a testable prediction, often    implied by a theory.  operational definition  a statement of the procedures  operational→ statement of  (operations) used to define  operations  research variables.​ For  definition→ define research  example, ​ human intelligence  variables   may be operationally defined  as “what an intelligence test  measures.”   replication  repeating the essence of a  replica​ (sounds likereplication​ )  research study, usually with  of the study​ , not the  different participants in different  same/​different   situations, to see whether the  basic finding extends to other  participants and circumstances.     case study  an observation technique in  studios (sounds like study​ ) →  which one person is studied in  universal​ studios   depth in the hope of revealing  universal principles  naturalistic observation  observing and recording behavior    in naturally occurring situations  without trying to manipulate and  control the situation.  survey  a technique for ascertaining the    self­reported attitudes or  behaviors of a particular group,  usually by questioning a  representative, random sample  of the group.  population  all those in a group being    studied, from which samples may  be drawn. (N​ote:​ Except for  national studies, this does not  refer to a country’s whole  population.)   random sample:  a sample that fairly represents a    population because each  member has an equal chance of  inclusion.  correlation  a measure of the extent to which    two factors vary together, and  thus of how well either factor  predicts the other.  correlation coefficient  a statistical index of the  Think math… coefficients has a  relationship between two things  variable attached (two things)  (from 1 to +1)      experiment  a research method in which an    investigator manipulates one or  more factors (independent  variables) to observe the effect  on some behavior or mental  process (the dependent  variable). By random assignment  of participants, the experimenter  aims to control other relevant  factors.  experimental group  in an experiment,the group    exposed to the treatment, that is,  to one version of the independent  variable.  control group  in an experiment, the group  control​ → under control, not  not​ xposed to the treatment;  tampered, ​ not exposed.   contrasts with the experimental  group and serves as a  comparison for evaluating the  effect of the treatment.  random assignment:  assigning participants to    experimental and control groups    by chance, thus minimizing    preexisting differences between    the different groups.      double­blind procedure  an experimental procedure in which botdouble→ both participants  the research participants and the  and staff. ​Not conductor   research staff are ignorant (blind) about  whether the research participants have  received the treatment or a placebo.  blind​→ can’t see, ​ un­aware  Commonly used in drug­evaluation  studies.  placebo effect  experimental results caused by  place (sounds like placebo)  expectations alone; any effect on  substance or condition   behavior caused by the    administration of an inert substance  or condition, which the recipient  effect→ expected results as  an active agent   assumes is an active agent.  independent variable  the experimental factor that is  You break up with your loved one  manipulated; the variable whose  because you feel ​ manipulated,  effect is being studied.  the single/​independent.  confounding variable  a factor other than the    independent variable that might  produce an effect in an  experiment.  dependent variable  the outcome factor; the variable  (refer back to independent  that may change in response to  variable) the outcome of the  manipulations of the independent  break up​ , the manipulator  variable  becomes ​ dependent ​ on the  other person… ​ “I miss you” blah,  blah  culture  the enduring behaviors, ideas,    attitudes, values, and traditions  shared by a group of people and  transmitted from one generation  to the next.   informed consent  giving potential participants    enough information about a study  to enable them to decide whether  they wish to participate.   debriefing  the post experimental  de­ → deceptions   explanation of a study, including  ­briefing → informing participant  its purpose and any deceptions,  to its participants.     testing effect  enhanced memory after retrieving,  testing → retrieval practice ​ (to  rather than simply rereading,  see if you practiced)   information. Also sometimes referred to  as aretrieval practice e​r cto effect → effector  test­enhanced learni g.​ SQ3R  a study method incorporatiS→ survey  step​​rvey​​estion​​ad,  Q→ question  Retriev​eview.  R→ read   R→ retrieve  R→ review   


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