Week 5 notes
Week 5 notes ARTH1001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Drake Lundstrom on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH1001 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Erin Hackmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see History of Art 1 in Art History at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Week 5 Notes: Monday, 2/08/2016 Review from last week (I did not get it down since my computer was rebootimh) New stuff: Mycenaean culture: Developed on the greek mainland. Florished between 1600BCE and 1000 BCE. Known for metalworking, ceramics, architecture, and developed many gooods that they traded. Their cities turned into wealth centers. They were also fierce warriors and focused on defence and fortifications. They also built bridges, drainage systems, and much else with their engineering skills. Developed the language linear B, that has been translated. Found by a guy who believed that the greek myths where based on history. Cyclopean masonry: masonry so big that the greeks thought it was made by cyclopses instead of people. Citadel of the Citadel: An example of Cyclopean masonry. A city with a colossal wall. Thought to be the city of troy. Lion Gate: gate into the huge walls. Has a horizontal lintel and a relieving sculpture. Has decorative lions to symbolize protection. It is possible that the lions were composite creatures, since the heads didn’t survive, so it is unsure. Megaron at Pylos: A throne room. Influenced the early temples of ancient Greece. Built with a central fireplace/hearth, and the king has a throne facing the hearth. Mask of Agamemnon: Shaft graves were constructed to bury the dead. And the important graves are clustered and surrounded by a stone wall. This gold mask is one of the examples of things buried with the important dead. It is believed that the mask was meant to preserve the identity of the corpse. Made using repousse. Also, it was not actually made for Agamemnon, and might be a partial or complete forgery. Repousse: hammer metal from the back to make a design stand out Tholos, the treasury of Atreus: A kind of tomb known as beehive tombs. For wealthy and important people. It is named wrong, since it was not the treasury of Atreus. Has a large doorway, topped by a relieving triangle. The doorway was once flanked by columns. One of the first open, clear, vaulted buildings of its time, and one of the largest. What is really significant is the method of construction: instead of columns, the stones are precisely cut and each layer protrudes slightly beyond the previous layer until they meet in the center. Corbel Vault: each layer protrudes slightly beyond the previous layer until they meet in the center. Art of ancient Greece: 1300 to 900 was known as the dark age of Greece. Society fell apart, aritecture was lost, writing was lost, knowledge was long. Greece defined by humanism: man is the measure of all things. It influenced democracy and many sculptures of humans. They developed a perfect human body. The ancient greeks never formed one big country, just many smaller city states. Athens had the first Athenian democracy: freedom of speech, private land ownership, voting rights, and so on. Men were considered superior. Also, slavery was considered a natural and beneficial thing. Vase painting is important, since it survived the most. Also, Greek art was very nonstatic, and varied over the years. IT changes drastically. Also, on the next exam, we will have to look at an unkown piece and determine it’s creation date Geometric Period (900-700): First major stylistic period. Pottery was painted with distinct geometric patterns. Attributed to the Hirschefeld Workshop: Funerary Krater. Krater is a kind of pot. Has a lot of geometric shapes. Has a key/meander pattern around the top. Also, Kraters were used to either mix wine with water, or as a grave marker. Early Greek funeral rituals are inscribed on the pot. The greeks viewed death as final, and most art focuses on this life, rather than the afterlife. The bodies shown are heavily stylized and are made out of simple shapes. There is also not much in the way of perspective. Wednesday, 2/10/2016 . Mycanean: Fortified the castles. Cyclopian architecture: built with stones and without mortar Tholos tombs: first example of corbel vaulted ceiling. Humanism is important in Greek culture. Gods in human form, art in human form, geometry of human form, so on. Funerary Krater: geometric period: Very unrealistic, simple geometric shapes, and the blank space is filled with patterns and designs. New stuff: Greece has a lot of changes in art style: Orientalizing style (700-600BCE) Greece is trading a lot with other groups and is heavily influebced by the Egyptians and near east. No mystery slide from the Orientalizing style Olpe (pitcher): More open design. Horizontal freezes of animals are very popular. Archaic Period (600-480BCE): Characterized by new degree of naturalism, especially of the human figure. Still outside influences, and potters and vase painters are starting to sign their work. Red figure painting allows for more naturalism Exekias (a potter and painter): he made Ajax and Achilles playing a game: Exekias was a master of black figure painting. Characterized by black painting on a red background. Slip is painted on, carvings are made, and after the pot is fired, the slip turns black. Black figure painting has lots of detail. Achilles wins in game of dice against Ajax. He says 4, Ajax says 3. This scene never happened in literature, and the two are trajically separated by death and war. There is a lot of detail portrayed, and the figures are even given some depth. Red figure painting is developed and gains popularity: A reverse of the other process, slip is painted as a background, and instead of using a hard metal tool to insize lines, it can be applied with a soft brush. Also, other shades can be used. Moving more and more towards naturalism Foreshortening: to give impressions of things extending back into space, things are made shorter Euphronios (artist) Euxitheos (Potter) Death of Sarpedon: This depicts the death of Sarpedon: taken away by figures representing sleep and death. Foreshortening is used on the leg of Sarpedon. Archaic period sculpture: First created life sized stone statues. Two types of freestanding figures most common: Kouros: a figure of a young man. Kore: Figure of a young woman. These figures are grave markers or sacrafices at temples. These figures are heavily influenced by ehyptian art. Stylized hair, with archaic smile and almond shaped eyes: Were created out of stone, terracotta, and woods. They were also once brightly painted. Metropolitan Kouros: 600BCE, 6’ tall Very typical Egyptian pose. Also called the New York Kouros. However, there are many differences: such as, the arms of the kouros are more separated. Also, not supported by a beam. Much more freestanding. Also, the kouros is nude. This is very normal in males in greek art. Male nudity was celebrated in ancient Greece and athletes competed in the nude. Male nudity represents a lot of good things. This is the opposite of much of Western art, where female nudity is preferred. The Kouros has braided hair and very stylized muscles. ‘Peplos’ Kore: Female, so there is clothing. Kore represent a lot of different types of human figures, like goddesses, priesteses, and so on. Her left arm is missing, but probably extended out and holding something. It is debated if she was a priestess or goddess. Holes in head and ears show there was probably a crown. She still has some paint chips and was probably once brightly painted. Her face shows more naturalism than earlier statues. Also, archaic smile. Shows more of a Friday, 2/12/2016 Soft brush allows greater send of naturalism Foreshortening: 2D representation of receding into space. Metropolitan Kouros: Stylized hair, almond shaped eyes, nude male for, Egyptian style of stiffness. Peplos kore: archaic smile, would have been painted, was either a priestess or a goddess. New stuff: Dying warrior: It was part of a group of sculptures on the west pediment of the temple of Aphaia. The warrior is nude, but the warriors were not actually nude. It is just an art convention to heroisize warriors. He is pulling an arrow out of his chest, but still has the archaic smile. The muscles are much more 3D with volume than the metropolitan Kouros. He is also much more open and arms further away from the body. He would have been painted with bronze trimmings. West pediemeent as a whole: Goddess Athena in the middle, portrays the battle against troy. East Pedament, 10 years later: Dying warrior, east pediment: Softer flesh, has more pathos/emotion. Even more realistic. Looks more like a thinking and feeling human being. Shows the really rapid stylistic changes. Classical Period: next part of greek art Early Classical Period: Starts with the greek defeat of Persian invaders. It creates the first sense of greekness, and that comes over into art. Classical figures try to capture how the human body actually is and moves in space. Heavily influenced by humanism, and a major break from the Egyptian influenced art. Early classical: more realistic sculpture, but not idealized like the high classical period. Kritios Boy: Early classical, relatively small. Very important work. The first time a sculptor shows how a human really stands. An artist triest to make stone look alive. Musculature is more realistic and sutle, eyes are a realistic shape and were once inlaid with something. He is standing like someone in real life. Warror: the greeks love to work in bronze. Very few survive, sinced, since they were valuable and melted down. Romans would also copy the greek works. This stature survived, discovered in 1972, because it was in a ship wreck and sunk. A hollow bronze sculture, created using lost wax technique. Has a more chiseled physique than actually possible in real life. No tailbone to look more visually pleasing. The eyes are inlaid with bone and glass, silver for teeth, copper for lips and nipples, to create some contrast and more life-likeness. Greek architecture and temples. Used lots of geometry. Greeks were polytheistic, built many temples, and would worship outside a temple on the east side. The earliest temples were built of wood and mud brick and didn’t survive. Starting in th archaic picture, they were built of limestone and marble. Appear similar to the megaron with a sigle room. The greeks value symmetry, and tried to achieve perfection through geometry. They also used math in their music. The temples were painted, and covered in cultptures that tell a lot about the deity, and the building as a whole was also considered a sculpture. The order that was used influnces the temple: Doric order: massive culumns without a base. Rest on the stylobate (platform). Above the column, there is an entablature resting on it. Pdement is on top of all with sculptures on top. Ionic: thinnrer and more ornamental. They have a base and a coiled capital (column top). No menapeze of trioliths Corinthian: more exotic, less coming. Distinguished by the campus leaf capital. Developed for use in interiors of buildings. Check the study guide for which of the many vocab words about temples you need to know. Exterior view of tample of Hera I. The temple is rectangular. Built eith Duric order. Earlier temples had longer, more narrow layout, 1:3 preportions. Surrounded by columns instead of a wall. Peripteral: single row of columns surround temples instead of walls. Steps lead of to the temple on all sides. The roofs of greek temples often don’t remain, since they are made of more perishable materials. This temple is still awkward. Kind of a beta version, with much more column support than need Celle: windowless main room that houses the cult statue. Entasis: swelling in the middle of columns.
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