Speech 2050 Week of 02/15 - 02/19
Speech 2050 Week of 02/15 - 02/19 Speech 2050
Popular in Media, Culture and Society
Popular in Speech
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tia Spears on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Speech 2050 at Georgia State University taught by Bellon in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Media, Culture and Society in Speech at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Sound and Radio (Chapter 4 & 5) Pop Music Music first achieved mass popularity through the sale of piano sheet music Most of this was early jazz or theatrical music... o But people still thought it was going to destroy America In the 1940's, pop vocalists like Frank Sinatra helped stabilize the record industry The History of Recorded Sound In 1857, a French inventor (de Martinville) recorded sound mechanically (phonautograph) o He could record it but could not play it back. In 1877 Thomas Edison learned how to reproduce sound to record it AND play it back. In 1887, Emile Berliner learned how to mass produce records. In the early 1990's, American companies produced basic record players. o Record players were like pieces of furniture. Stereo sound wasn't wildly available until the late 1950's. Digital recording was invented in 1978. Compact discs were available in the early 1980's. The Apple iTunes store debuted in 2001. Digital sales now account for 64% of the U.S. market. Radio History The telegraph was invented in the 1840's. Radio was put to similar uses as the telegraph (like communicating with ships at sea). Marconi (an Italian) sent the first radio message in 1895. o There is some question whether he invented the first radio device - both Loomis and Tesla have also been credited. An American (De Forest) helped popularize radio by demonstrating the potential of voice transmissions. The radio coverage of the sinking of the Titanic helped popularize the medium. The idea of using radio to generate advertising revenue did not come about until the 1920's. Not coincidentally, this is when publicly accessible radio stations started to appear. Radio grew quickly. The number of stations went from 5 to 600 in two years. This caused a problem: too many stations, and not enough frequencies. The government stepped in to regulate radio. Records v. Radio Radio cut record sales in half in the first year of its existence. The record industry then required radio stations to pay for playing songs This largely failed, and record sales crashed The end of prohibition increased record sales, because of bars and jukeboxes. Radio didn't start cooperating with the recording industry until TV started cutting into its audience and its profits. Now, record companies sometimes "pay" radio stations to play specific songs. o pay = bribes Radio: The Broadcast Medium Radio was actually the first medium to use networks: o groups of linked broadcast stations that share programming produced at a central location Most modern TV networks actually started as radio networks (NBC, ABC, CBS) Because early radio was dominated by news, it helped create modern news organizations. Advertising (Chapter 11) The History of Advertising Advertising has existed throughout almost all of recorded history (since at least 3000 B.C.E.) Historically, the technology to print very large numbers of ads arrived at about the same time as the technology to transport products and ads large distances. At the same time, factory technology made it possible to mass-produce things to advertise. In the early 1840's, space brokers became a new form of business in the U.S.: o Buying space in newspapers and selling it to people who wanted advertisements In 1869, the first modern full-service advertising agency opened in the U.S. o This meant, in part, that the agency worked for the client and not for the newspaper. Brands National brands were relatively uncommon in the U.S. before the middle-to-late 1800's. Why? o Brands weren't able to be national. There wasn't any national transportation. Brand names encourage consumers to believe in the idea of "product differentiation": o The idea that there are significant differences among products even if there are very few. "Product differentiation associated with name-brand packaged goods represents the single biggest triumph of advertising.' o Most ads aren't effective in the short term, but... o Over time, they create demand through associating some products with quality. National brands were important for two reasons o They created "brand loyalty" that allowed companies to charge higher prices. o They helped create the high demand for specific products that was necessary for factory production. Persuasive Techniques Famous-person testimonial Plain-folks pitch o Associates a product with simplicity Snob appeal approach o Suggests that using a product will elevate your social status Bandwagon effect o Plays on the desire to be popular or part of the crowd Hidden fear appeal o Plays on consumers' insecurities Irritation advertising o Creating name recognition by being annoying Association principle o Associating a product with a positive value or image even if it has little to no connection to the product. Stereotyping o The process of assigning people to abstract groups whose members are assumed to act as a single entity. o Early ads were tended to be negatively stereotypical of women and racial minorities because ad executives were predominantly white, male, and ignorant. o Negative stereotyping is now used in ads to attract people who enjoy seeing other groups being stereotyped. Viral marketing o The creation of ads or other marketing materials that are so attractive to consumers that they voluntarily distribute them to their own social networks.
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