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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dailyn Naugle on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Northern Illinois University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Chapter 2 Psyc Notes Biology of Behavior Neural Communication Nerve cells that are the building blocks of our nervous system Both an electrical signal is triggered and travels through the axon Electrical signal triggers a chemical signal which triggers and electrical signal in the receiving neuron. What makes up a neuron? Cell body: life support center of cell Dendrites: receive messages from other cells & conduct info to the cell body o Branching extensions at the cell body Axon: passes messages through to terminal branches & on to other cells o Covered in myelin sheath: insulates the axon to improve neural communication terminal branches: branched endings of an axon that transmit message to other neurons Neural and Neuronal Communication The Action Potential a brief electrical charge that troubles down an axon line wave The Synapse o Junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron Neurotransmitters Reuptake: Recycling Neurotransmitters [NTs] o Process by which neurotransmitter are taken back into the synaptic vesicles The big picture : nerve cell communication Each neuron receives excitatory and inhiborty signals When the threshold is reached the neuron fires and action potential The action potential travels down the axon from the cell body to the terminal branches The signal causes the release of NT into the synapse and binds with receptors. This binding produces signals for the next neuron. Roles of different neurotransmitters Serotonin: Func: frf7474 Dopamine. : influences movement learning attention and emotion; undersupply linked to decreased mobility in Parkinson’s disease and ADHD Acetylcholine (Ach): enables muscle action, learning and memory; Achproducing neurons… Norepinephrine: Helps control alertness and arousal; Undersupply can depress mood and cause ADHDlike attention problems. GABA(GAMAAMBINOBUTYRIC ACID); A major inhibitory neurotransmitter; Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia. Glutamate: Major excitory neurotransmitter; involved in memory; Oversupply can overstimulate the brain producing migraines or seizures; this is why some people avoid MSG in food. Nervous System Types of Neurons Sensory carries messages IN Interneurons process information between the sensory input and motor output Motor carries instructions OUT The pain response, your spines interneurons trigger your hand to pull away when something is hot and you say OUCH. Example of reflex action Peripheral Autonomic (controls selfregulated action of internal organs and glands) Sympathetic (arousing) Parasympathetic (calming) Somatic (controls voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles) The Endocrine System Set of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones Like the nervous system, but sends them through bloodstream instead of across synapses. Messages go to brain and other tissues. The “Master Gland” the anterior pituitary lobe releases hormones that regulate other glands. The posterior lobe regulates water and salt balance. Pituitary Gland (Secretes many different hormones some of which affect others) Thyroid gland (affects metabolism among other things) Parathyroid (help regulate the level of calcium in the blood) Pancreas (control level of sugar in blood) Adrenal gland (controls stress reaction, inner part helps trigger fight or flight response) The Brain (tools used to study) EEG: electroencephalogram – recording electrical waves sweeping across the brains surface PET: Position emission tomography allows to see what part of the brain is active by tracing where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging – static imaging of the brain using magnetic fields fMRI: Functional MRI – reveals brain activity and function rather than structures. Functional MRI compares successive MRI images taken a split second apart and shows changes in the level of oxygen in blood flow in the brain. Plasticity: the brain is adaptable *Q* If the brain is damaged The brain does not repair neurons but it can restore some functions It can form new connections reorganize reassign brain areas to new functions. To end severe whole brain seizures, some people have had surgery to cut the corpus callosum a band of axons connecting the hemispheres. Split brain patients *Q* With the corpus callosum severed, objects (baseball) presented in the right visual field can be named. Objects (hammer) in the left field cannot
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