MQM 221 Class Notes - Week 6
MQM 221 Class Notes - Week 6 MQM 221
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessie Frank on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MQM 221 at Illinois State University taught by Yongmei Lie in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior and Administration Resources in Business, management at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
MQM 221 Liu Tuesday, February 16, 2016 Attitudes versus Emotions Attitudes Judgments about an attitude object Based mainly on rational logic Usually stable for days or longer Emotions Experiences related to an attitude object Based on innate and learned responses to environment Short duration Traditional Model of Attitudes Beliefs – I believe my boss plays favorites Feelings – I don’t like my boss Behavioral intentions – I want to transfer to another department Beliefs influence our feelings Beliefs are perceived facts that you acquire from experience and other forms of learning Feelings influence our behavioral intentions Feelings are calculated from your beliefs e.g. like or dislike People with same feelings can form different behavioral intentions due to different perceptions about consequences Behavioral intentions to behavior Whether your intentions translate into behavior depends on the situation and possibly other MARS elements Emotions, Attitudes, and Behavior How emotions influence attitudes: 1. Feelings and beliefs are influenced by cumulative emotional episodes (not just evaluation of beliefs) 2. We ‘listen in’ on our emotions Emotions also directly affect behavior Potential conflict between cognitive and emotional processes MQM 221 Liu Cognitive Dissonance A condition whereby we perceive an inconsistency between our beliefs, feelings, and behavior. This inconsistency generates emotions (e.g., feeling hypocritical) that motivate us to increase consistency. Easier to increase consistency by changing feelings and beliefs, rather than change behavior. Job Satisfaction A person's evaluation of his or her job and work context An appraisal of the perceived job characteristics, work environment, and emotional experience at work Determinants of Job Satisfaction 1. Personality 2. Work situation 3. Values 4. Social influence Outcomes of Job Satisfaction • Organizational citizenship behavior • Job performance? (r=.20.30) • Turnover/absenteeism • Customer satisfaction and loyalty Job Satisfaction and Performance Happy workers are somewhat more productive workers, but: 1. General attitude is a poor predictor of specific behaviors 2. Job satisfaction effect on performance is lower when employees have less control over output 3. Reverse explanation: Job performance affects satisfaction, but only when rewarded The Service Profit Chain Model Job satisfaction increases customer satisfaction and profitability because: 1. Job satisfaction affects mood, leading to positive behaviors toward customers 2. Job satisfaction reduces employee turnover, resulting in more consistent and familiar service Responses to Dissatisfaction Exit MQM 221 Liu o Leaving the situation o Quitting, transferring Voice o Changing the situation o Problem solving, complaining Loyalty o Patiently waiting for the situation to improve Neglect o Reducing work effort/quality o Increasing absenteeism Building Affective Commitment Justice/Support o Apply humanitarian values o Support employee wellbeing Shared values o Values congruence Trust o Employees trust organizational leaders o Job security supports trust Organizational comprehension o Know firm’s past/present/future o Open and rapid communication Employee motivation o Employees feel part of company o Involvement demonstrates trust Thursday, February 18, 2016 What is stress? Adaptive response to situations perceived as challenging or threatening to wellbeing Prepares us to adapt to hostile or noxious environmental conditions. Video – Meet the Parents: Plane bomb scene. He was stressed since the airline wanted to check his bag… but in the previous movie, the airline had lost his bag. o Afraid of losing his bag again. o You could tell he was stressed because… MQM 221 Liu On edge Tone Stressor – the person or event that triggers the stress response. Distress/Strain – the adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational concequences that may arise as a result of stressful events. Why do we care about stress? Stress is #1 health problem in America. Job stress is by far the leading source of stress for adults. Estimated cost to American industry of job stress $300 bil per year. How stressed are we? Scale of 110 Most are 5 or above. What are our stressors? o School/exams o Work o Future o Career outlook The ways WE deal with stress. Try and fix/remove the problem o Ex. Make a list Withdrawal o Ex. Watch TV, drink, etc. o Does not fix the problem, just postpones it; temporary fix Extraversion o Ex. Complain General Adaptation Syndrome MQM 221 Liu 3 Stages: 1. Alarm reaction you freeze, you don’t know what to do. You experience a temporary jolt. o (You don’t move. Stare at the tiger) 2. Resistance stage – start to gather all of the resources you have to cope with your stressor. Your energy and resources go to relieving that stressor. o (you run away from the tiger) 3. Exhaustion – you get physically and emotionally sick. Benefits of Eustress Health Cardiovascular efficiency Balance in the nervous system Enhanced focus in an emergency Performance Increased arousal Bursts of physical strength Full engagement YerkesDodson Law (Performance arousal) When individuals feels eustress, they will perform at the best. Eustress level is different for every individual. When there is a lack of stimulation in our environment, we feel stress because we are bored. When you have too much to do, you feel stressed because the task is too much for you to handle and will burnout. 3 Consequences of Distress. 1. Physiological – cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headaches 2. Behavioral –Work performance, accidents, absenteeism, aggression, poor decisions. o When we are in distress, we tend to be more moody, harsh and aggressive. MQM 221 Liu 3. Psychological – dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue. Organizational Consequences of Distress Participative Problems – a cost associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes and work stoppages, and turnover Performance Decrement – a cost resulting from poor quality or low quantity of production, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair Compensation Award – an organizational cost resulting from court awards for job distress What are Stressors? Stressors are the causes of stress any environmental condition that places a physical or emotional demand on the person. Some common workplace stressors include: • Harassment and incivility • Work overload • Low task control Psychological Harassment Repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions or gestures, that affect an employee's dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that result in a harmful work environment for the employee. o Ex. To women, “why do you work so much? It is time for you to have babies” About 30% of the stress people feel at work is from interpersonal relationships with coworkers. Work Overload and Task Control Stressors Work Overload • Working more hours, more intensely than one can cope • Affected by globalization, consumerism, ideal worker norm Task Control • Due to lack control over how and when tasks are performed • Stress increases with responsibility MQM 221 Liu • People have a lot to do, but do not have control over how to do it. Individual Differences in Stress Individual differences that minimize distress o Better physical health o Appropriate stress coping strategies o Lower neuroticism o Higher extraversion o Positive selfconcept o Lower workaholism (being addicted to work… you do not necessarily enjoy work, but you feel the need to be there always working; do not feel a sense of accomplishment from working) Extraverts have an easier time than introverts have an easier time managing stress because they are more likely to talk about it. Managing WorkRelated Stress Remove the stressor • Minimize/remove stressors • Work/life balance initiatives Withdraw from the stressor • Vacation, rest breaks Change stress perceptions • Positive selfconcept, humor Control stress consequences • Healthy lifestyle, fitness, wellness Receive social support Discussion on Work/Life Balance The two articles assigned along with the chapter materials on stress Thoughts o It is generally impossible to have a work/life balance. MQM 221 Liu o If your managers trust you, it is easier to have a better balance. o The balance idea starts from the top: if top management leaves at a certain day, they are modeling that type of behavior for their employees as well. o With technology, you are never actually disconnected from your work since it is so simple to take it with you. o You are also expected to do more because of technology. o Worthwhile job and focusing on building relationships at home. Do not look at the amount of time at each domain, but the quality spent in each domain. Time Management Tips HIGH URGENCY LOW URGENCY HIGH 1 3 IMPORTANC Crises Developmental opportunities E Customer Innovating Complaints Planning LOW 2 4 IMPORTANC Mail Escapes E Ringing telephone Routines Unscheduled interruptions Arguments Which box do you want to spend the most time in? Box 3 TED Talks – How to multiply your time. Add a third component to the model: Significance. More longterm.
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