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COMM Notes Ch.16

by: Angie Martinez-Tejada

COMM Notes Ch.16 COMM1001

Angie Martinez-Tejada
Fashion Institute of Technology
GPA 3.3

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Chapter 16 notes.
Introduction to Communication
Keith Richards
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angie Martinez-Tejada on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM1001 at East Carolina University taught by Keith Richards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication in Language at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
COMM1001 Notes Ch.16 Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) 2/11/16 Foundations: Goals of Persuasion -Persuasive speaking can have several goals: a. Conversion: Seeks radical conversion b. Modification: Seeks incremental change c. Maintenance: Creates resistance to counter-persuasion  Listeners sort persuasive messages into those that are important, or central, and those that are less relevant, or peripheral. -Central Route (Anything that is relevant to YOU) -Peripheral Route (anything that is less relevant or beneficial to you)  Theory authors: Petty and Cacioppo  Central: attitude of the audience is changed as a result of thoughtful consideration. -Requires the listener to carefully consider arguments and counterarguments -Effects (change) obtained through this route last longer Why? You took a lot of time and consideration into making this decision, therefore those changes will last longer.  Peripheral: occurs when positive or negative cues are associated with the message -Relative mindless, the listener looks for mental shortcuts to making decisions. -If a person uses a simple decision rule for evaluating the message. EX: “The attractive salesperson said I looked good in the pants so I will buy them.” -these effects tend to be short-lived because they aren’t based on any substance; they were quick and easy decisions to make.  Two cognitive processes: Message elaboration- The extent to which a person carefully thinks about issue-relevant arguments in a persuasive communication. The amount of effort someone puts in to thinking about a message. Do you check research profusely? Do you just ask a colleague?  ELM: Putting information together and really thinking about it. How likely are you to elaborate and think hard about  Central Route Processing: really paying attention to central details. Researching, really thinking hard about something.  Peripheral Route Processing: Information that isn’t really central to the root of the decision. Being influenced by things that really aren’t that important. (It’s a pretty color so I’m going to buy it).  Peripheral: Process the message without any active thinking about the attributes of the issue or the object of consideration. Recipients rely on a variety of cues to make quick decisions.  Roberty Cialdini has identified six such cues: -Reciprocation: You are in debt to the other person. (Basically returning the favor that they did for you). -Consistency: This is how things are always done. You don’t have to spend too much time deciding because you are used to doing things in a certain way. -Social proof: “Look, everyone is doing it”. (Sort of like peer-pressure). -Liking: You are my friend. (Knowing that someone is going to do something for you because they are your friend). -Authority: “Because I said so”. If your boss tells you to do something you’re going to do it because you do not want to get fired. -Scarcity: There isn’t enough time to react. Limited time sales & promotions. (One-day sale! Early bird sales) These things inspire relatively thoughtless decision making.  Effort: the more listeners work to evaluate a message, the less they will be influenced by irrelevant factors.  The greater the effect of irrelevant factors, the less impact the message carries. *This is important for persuasion.  People are motivated to hold the correct and proper attitudes. You are motivated to think in the same way that others think. (Texting and driving is dangerous, so you also want to believe that it’s dangerous).  The number of ideas a person can scrutinize is limited, so we tend to focus on issues that are personally relevant.  Personally relevant issues are more likely to be processed on the central route. (If it is relevant to YOU, you will spend more time and effort evaluating it).  Need for Cognition: Certain individuals have a need for cognitive clarity, regardless of the issue; these people will work through any of the ideas and arguments they hear.  Higher NFC is associated with increased appreciation of debate, idea evaluation, and problem solving. (People who want to think in-depth about issues). Those who enjoy spending time in thought.  Ability for elaboration: Can they do it? -Elaboration requires intelligence and concentration. -Repetition may increase the possibility of elaboration, but too much repetition causes people to resort to the peripheral route. (It can become annoying).  Elaborated Arguments: Strong, Weak, and Neutral -Strong Arguments: claims that generate favorable thoughts when examined. -Thoughtful consideration of strong arguments produce major shifts in attitude in the direction desired by the persuader. (As a presenter, you want to present correct and persuasive arguments). -Weak persuasive attempts processed through the central route can have negative effects. (As you start to process the central ideas of the argument, you realize how bad of an idea it is).  Peripheral Cues: An alternative route of influence -Most messages processed on the less effortful peripheral path. -Speaker credibility: Audience perception of the message source’s expertise, character, dynamism, typically a peripheral cue. (Your impression on the persuader... do they know their facts?). -Minimal and temporary change is all that can be expected through the peripheral route.  Credibility: the principle characteristic of the communicator affecting their persuasiveness is their credibility. Credibility itself is made up of many factors, making it multidimensional. -Expertise: How much the speaker knows about the topic. -Trustworthiness: How truthful or honest we perceive the speaker to be. -Competence: The audience’s perception of the speaker’s knowledge and experience on a topic. -Attractiveness: The speaker’s appearance, body language, etc. -Dynamism: The enthusiasm and energy exhibited by the speaker. -Composure: the appropriateness of displaying composure depends on the context of the persuasive topic/intent of the speaker.  Choosing a Route: Practical Advice for the Persuader -The persuader needs to determine likelihood of listeners giving undivided attention to evaluating the proposal. -Persuaders need thoughtful and well-reasoned arguments if they seek to change listeners’ minds.  Critique: Elaborating the Model -For the last 20 years, ELM has been one of the leading theories of persuasion and attitude change. -Some argue the theory cannot be adequately tested and falsified, particularly in terms of what makes a strong or weak argument. -Despite these limitations, the theory synthesizes many aspects of persuasion.


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