Class Lecture Notes on Chapters 8&9
Class Lecture Notes on Chapters 8&9 1300-03
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Kaufman on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1300-03 at Tulane University taught by John Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
2/12/16 (p. 150 chart with all the theories laid out) Chapter 8 class notes Emphasis in this chapter regarding socialization is specifically studied through how you come to learn certain things (through direct interaction, experience, etc.) As a youth, your peer group is your biggest influence Psychologists think that your family is your biggest influence (overdramatize relationships with parents) Sociologists feel that the primary concern is with peers It’s useless to ask why people behave in a way that “we” don’t approve of --because this is obviously due to the peer group THEY associate with Sutherland: Differential Association (2 nd most cited theory) - White collar crime is introduced by Sutherland - argued that in order to engage in criminal misconduct they had to learn/be socialized to behaviors that are favorable to deviant/criminal misconduct - learn strategies for carrying out deviance - looking at delinquent peers and scams - the socialization (learning process) of these attitudes had to be learned in DIRECT interpersonal communication - key: we all interact with different subcultural groups everyday, not necessarily do they share the same attitudes and norms, but the more associations you have with groups whose definitions of behavior/norms were consistent with criminality, the more likely you would get into criminal misconduct - which is first? Did they seek out criminality or did they learn through people then decide they wanted to behave like them - the idea of exposure to “favorable behaviors” that lead to criminal misconduct….can’t be answered because in your every day life you are exposed to attitudes favorable to criminal activity in every part of life Glaser: Differential Identification Theory - How do you know which groups you respond to? - Attracted to some groups more than others - Feel more part of the group - The people in it are more like you - If you identify with a group and want to keep reverence from them Differential Reinforcement Theory - How certain behaviors are reinforced by certain social groups - Groups that support crime make it more likely for you to engage in this behavior - Emotional reward for you - When you are part of a group but you are not recognized then you will end up switching groups - All about rewards Bandura: Social Learning Theory - socialization doesn’t have to be direct (many different modes) - could be through observation - learn through media sources - indirect interaction is also part of the socialization process Drift Theory - when looking at people’s behaviors, people go in and out of deviant behaviors - criminal behavior is sort of “on the side” - Techniques of Neutralization: how do you rationalize or justify getting involved in behavior that is going to victimize someone else? - they argue that part of the learning process teaches you excuses and justifications that allow you to dodge normalcy and get involved in victimizing behavior - learn these things through every part of your life - Techniques: 1. denial of responsibility (ex. I was doing it because everyone else was!) 2. denial of injury (ex. I did it, but nobody was seriously harm so it’s not serious) 3. denial of victim (ex. They did something to cause their victimization) 4. condemnation of condemners (ex. Turning it around on the person questioning you, pointing the finger back, who are you to blame me) 5. appeal to higher loyalties (ex. Engaged in crime for a more important end/goal) Control Theories - focus on individuals behavior is subject to a range of different types of containment (ways in which social groups restrict your engagement in deviance) - Behavior to a certain extent is shaped by outer containments - Like socialization agents (peers, family, educational systems) being overtly taught what is right and wrong - Conventional: according to social mainstream - Inner Containments: regulate yourself, self-control - Both inner and outer influence you - Certain factors involved in trying to keep us bound to conventional society 1. Attachment bond: positive attachment to role models (focus on parents) 2. Commitment: how you feel about the things that “matter” (school, grades, etc.) 3. Involvement: what you do after school or in extra time that is conventional 4. Belief: act in accord with laws because they believe the system is just - Hirschi’s Theory: thought that all the other theories emphasized the wrong things - Look at everyone (normal people included) - Why is it that for the most part people act according to regulations and laws - If we can figure out why people act according to the standards, just reverse that to see why people are criminals - People are selfish (inherent or natural?) - Individuals differ from the group that they are part of - 1970: Deviance/crime as weakened bonds with “conventional” society (family, peers, and schools are the biggest stabilizing influences) - 1990: new emphasis of the theory--deviance/criminality reflects lack of self-control - Control Balance Theory (Tittle): deviance/crime can reflect too much control of too little control - degree you feel you have over others in your life - people who believe that they are in control of a situation when interacting with other individuals, they are going to be manipulators and are more likely to inflict their wills on other people to get immediate self gratification - you either feel too strongly or too minimally about your power Interactional Theory: - you can get into a cycle where you get involved in delinquent activities, you are told that this is wrong and you should be doing/thinking other things - this turns into a cycle and when you’re a teen you don’t want people to tell you what you’re doing is wrong Adolescent Theory: - people who go into chronic criminality came from a bad background (low social class) - caused by ineffective parents Age Grade Theory (?): - look at turning points (life events that are strongly stabilizing) - if you go through one of these events then you are less likely to go into the criminal world (getting married, having kids, having a job) 2/19/16 Chapter 9 Class notes Conflict Perspectives and Radical Perspectives - Difference between them: - Conflict: focus on the importance of people with power in terms of shaping particular behaviors as being deviant or criminal - Radical: blame capitalism for the problems that you see in crime - Not everyone had the same ideas about what is right and wrong, but some people have greater access to getting their ideas enforced - Power: capacity to be able to get your way despite opposition - Authority: someone who has “legitimate power”—agree that even though you don’t like what someone is saying you still abide by the rules, directs you in terms of your behaviors WITH YOUR CONSENT - Focus on roles of power and authority in these perspectives - Difference between these perspectives and chapter 7&8: 7and 8 focused on explaining why these people engage in criminal behaviors o chapter 9: there isn’t an inherent right and wrong, it depends on the people in the group that has authority, there has to be an established definition o the big thing comes from WHO defines particular activities as being criminal o what are the consequences associated with rules, regulation, and laws o these are enforced by people who have authority o this theory reversed a lot of thought Labeling (Social Reaction Theory) from Lemert and Becker: - emphasis on deviance amplification, self fulfilling prophecy, the relativity of labels, and authority figures - very influential - how the act of defining something as deviant or criminal and being responded to by punitive sanctions, drives people further and further into criminal/deviant behavior - self-fulfilling prophecy: if someone believes something about you, then you start believing it about yourself - When you react really harshly to people that are criminal, you tell them that they are no longer one of us, they incorporate that into their own self image - They self define themselves as being deviant or criminals and live up to your expectations of being involved in criminal/deviant acts - If people are responded to positively early on, you learn that you can improve and develop - If people are pushing you away, your reason for caring about these people goes away because you can’t join their group so you join groups that will accept you (more deviant groups) - Severing ties with mainstream society leads people to go into more subordinate groups - Problems with this theory: 1. No emphasis on why people are engaging in deviant/criminal behavior 2. Can’t be too severe with punishments in the beginning because otherwise people are forced into criminality (??) – over responding 3. Victimless crimes ? Vold Devinace/Crime as Culture Conflict - Look at how laws tend to be charged against behaviors that are considered non-cultural or totally countercultural according to people’s immigration status - The dominant cultures decides which rules/regulations are going to observed and carried out in the real world - Deviance/crime came from contradictory view points of right and wrong