I-O Psychology Week 6 Notes
I-O Psychology Week 6 Notes PSYC 2544
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2544 at George Washington University taught by Blacksmith, N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
I-O Psychology Week 6 Notes 2/17/16 6:14 PM Validity is how accurate your assessment is – is it measuring what it is supposed to be measuring? Is it covering everything it needs to cover? Psychological Assessment What is a test? (test = anything from an assessment, to a survey, any psychological measurement essentially) • Objective and standardized procedure for measuring a psychological construct using a sample of behavior o Attributes to be assed ▯ content o Ways to assess attributes ▯ process Validity • Whether measurements taken accurately and completely represent what is to be measured • The degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of test scores for proposed uses of tests (formal APA definition) o The degree = a continuum (more or less valid; rather than valid or not valid) o Evidence = must be able to describe the validity for each test o Uses of tests = covers the content of validity, describes everything, has all the components of validity – are you using these scores in the correct context? It’s all about how you’re using the tests • The most fundamental consideration in I-O research, especially developing assessments Process of Validation Validity is a process • Accumulating relevant evidence to provide sound scientific basis for how to interpret scores o Validation is a necessary condition for justifying use of test • Interpretation of test scores can involve description, prediction of future outcome, etc. • Statements of validity should be about the interpretations, NOT the test o Incorrect: “this test is valid,” or “the validity of the test” • Begins with a statement of the proposed interpretation o MUST specify which construct (i.e., variable) the test is designed to measure o Define scope and elaborate on aspects of construct being measured o How is the construct different form other constructs? o How is the construct similar to other constructs? o How should the construct relate to other constructs? o How will the test be used? • Process of constructing and evaluating argument for and against intended interpretation o Helps determine which kind of evidence needs to be collected Validity • A Unitarian concept o It is ONE thing – there are not “types” of validity • Sources of validity evidence: o Construct (content, internal structure, etc.) o Criterion ▯ Predictive ▯ Concurrent o Convergent and divergent (similarity and dissimilarity) • Need multiple forms of validity evidence to support Evidence based on test content • Demonstrates that content of selection procedure represents adequate sample of important work behaviors and activities or worker KSAOs defined by job analysis • Themes, wording, format of items, tasks or questions on test o Do they represent the construct domain? o Does the test measure irrelevant information? o Is the test missing any content? • I-O psychologists can use incumbents/SMEs to gather content validity evidence What is construct deficiency? • ▯ missing something that needs to be there What is construct contamination? • ▯ irrelevant information, bias, error Evidence based on relations to other variables Convergent • Should be related to similar constructs • Example: verbal and quantitative ability (these both fall under cognitive ability) Discriminant • Should not be related to different constructs • Example: quantitative ability and extraversion (these are not related to one another) Evidence based on relations with criterion: Predictive • Correlate a test score (predictor) with a performance measure • Two types of designs: • 1) Predictive validity design o Time lag between collection of test data and criterion data o Test often administered to job applicants • 2) Concurrent validity design o No time lag between collection of test data and criterion data o Test administered to current employees, performance measures collected at same time o Disadvantage: no data about those not employed by the organization 2/17/16 6:14 PM 2/17/16 6:14 PM
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