BIO 111-14 Chapter 5 Notes
BIO 111-14 Chapter 5 Notes BIOL 111 102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Romano on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 111 102 at Camden County College taught by Jill Carroll in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Biology in Science at Camden County College.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Polymer -Large molecules formed by linking together small similar subunits called monomers Dehydration Synthesis/Reaction -removal of H 2 molecules from larger molecules Bond name differs based on monomers # of bonds = 1 less than # of monomers Each bond = 1 water molecule - Hydrolysis Breaks polymers down into monomers Carbohydrates -Monomers are monosaccharides - 1:2:1 ratio of carbon:hydrogen:oxygen - Trioces = 3 Carbon - Pentoces = 5 Carbon - “ose” = simple sugar - Dissaccharides 2 monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis -Glucosidic linkage -C6H 12+6C H 6 12C 6 O 6 22 11 (remove 1 H O2 -Polysaccharides: complex carbohydrates -Storage Carbohydrates Don’t want to be broken down Cellulose = structure for plant cell walls Dietary Fiber = not meant to be broken down for energy; sustains digestive bacteria Chitin = exoskeletal structure for insects, crabs, snakes, etc Lipids -Hydrophobic due to nonpolar fatty acids -Fats Glycerol with 3 fatty acid chains -Ester Linkage (Dehydration Synthesis) Also known as triglyceride Long term energy storage -Unsaturated Fat Plant Kink/bend Liquid at room temperature Polyunsaturated: more than 1 double bond At least 1 double bond between Carbons Ex: olive oil, corn oil -Saturated Fat Animal Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds Linear fatty acid Solid at room temperature Ex: butter, lard, bacon fat -Hydrogenation Addition of Hydrogen atoms Forms trans fats -Phospholipids Glycerol, phosphate, and choline heads with fatty acid tails Hydrophobic tails avoid water Hydrophilic heads protect/surround tails when in water Forms bilayer of phospholipids when in water Makes up cell membrane -Steroids 4 fused rings with various groups attached Cholesterol (precursor to sex hormones) Proteins (Amino Acids) -Glycene = smallest amino acid -Amino Acids are monomers -Linked together by Dehydration Synthesis (Peptide Bond) Protein Structure th -At least 3 levels of structure (4 optional) -Primary: single polypeptide chain Every polypeptide has specific structure/sequence -Secondary: spiral helix of Hydrogen bonds or pleated sheet of Hydrogen bonds -Tertiary: interaction of 2 groups Hydrophobic amino acids on outside with hydrophilic head Hydrophilic amino acids on inside with hydrophobic tails If single polypeptide chain, tertiary structure is highest level of structure -Quartiary: how multiple polypeptide chains come together to form a complete molecule Chaperone Proteins -Assist with proper folding -Temporarily isolates protein so it doesn’t clump with other, then releases protein Denaturation -Change in shape -Each protein has optimal environment conditions (pH, temperature, ionic concentration) Deviation from optimal environment can cause denaturation -Rare to renature Nucleic Acids -2 Types: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) -Contains genetic info -Located in nucleus RNA (ribonucleic acid) -Located in membrane -Polypeptide Synthesis -Structure: - 5 Carbon Sugar (OH ribose = RNA; Deoxyribose H sugar = DNA) Phosphate group (Negative Charge) Nitrogenous base Purenes = double rings Puritidines = one ring Sequence beginning with Thymine = DNA Sequence beginning with Uracil = RNA Nucleotides linked together (Phosphodiester Bond) DNA is double stranded -A = T -D = C -Hydrogen bonds hold nitrogenous bases together (can “unzip”) -Always a helix shape RNA is single stranded - -Can fold in on itself (Form H bonds to make different shapes)
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