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Week 3

by: Tamara Girodie

Week 3 Psych 315

Tamara Girodie

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About this Document

These notes will cover: Continuation to the motive behind all motives Intro to behavioral control Motivation of mating Parental investment model Note: Only one class worth of notes (2.5 page...
Christopher Magalis
Class Notes
Psychology, psych, Pop, motive, motivation, behavioral control, mating, parental investment, parental investment model, snow day
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tamara Girodie on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 315 at Towson University taught by Christopher Magalis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Motivation in Psychlogy at Towson University.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
Wednesday, February 17, 2016 Psych Notes Week 3 Note: Due to the awful weather here in Maryland, class was canceled on Monday and thus no notes will be posted for that day. REMEMBER TO READ CHAPTER 1!!! The Motive Behind All Motives? - There is a rung in Maslow’s hierarchy above self-actualization: • Transcendental needs • There was a mud hut discovered which indicates having acted as a temple, which was built before even the first pyramid. • Then what is the motivation behind religion and spirituality? • Is religion a bi-product of evolution? Chapter Two: Intro to Behavioral Control - One potential biological-based system —> Evolutionary psychological considerations - Darwinian theory is the most widely accepted theory of evolution • Offspring • Natural selection • Survival of the fittest • Species - We are all linked, what differentiates us are adaptive mechanisms and behaviors • There is a lot of reproduction in a species, which leads to variation between and within species - These variations can give an organism an edge in it’s particular environment, thus following survival of the fittest (seen in finches’ beaks) - Say there is a natural disaster and all but the most maladaptive of the species survives. In this case, a new branch of the species begins to develop off of the originally maladapted one. 1 Wednesday, February 17, 2016 - Allele frequencies and DNA are changed by evolution to promote the existence of a species - Variations will only prosper if it gives a species a survival value - Characteristics of genes influenced by natural selection • Viability: living long enough to reproduce - Baby chicks’ “distress calls” • Fertility: mating success - Male peacocks tail feathers, lions’ mane, male grouse “mating dances” • Mating dances are a behavior, which provides an evolutionary perspective on motivated behavior • Fecundity: number of offspring - Female cats in “heat”, general male readiness for sexual intercourse - A spinal reflex is the way it is because of genetic hardwiring, which works at the level of variations in the alleles. When a reflex succeeds, it becomes more prominent in a species. - When looking at the taking control of reflexes, it means we have to consider other reasons than evolutionary psychological considerations, such as in the case of losing the grasping reflex we all had when younger. - 2nd theory of darwinian evolution • Fertility could also have to do more with behavioral control rather than evolutionary psychological control, as it can change the fecundity, or number of offspring • Sexual preferences could have to do with behavioral control systems promoting survival - “Good genes” - Strong immune systems - Ability to provide / protect young • Aka “Sexual Selection” - There is a certain pressure for certain characteristics and behaviors which make their genes more fertile 2 Wednesday, February 17, 2016 - All about mating success • Evolutionarily speaking, variations in a finches’ beaks make sense, as do reflexes. However, what about in the case of peacocks? - From a natural selection point of view, they make no sense. The colorful plumage is not conducive to camouflage. - Note: males genitals stick out, but why? Wouldn’t this be disadvantageous and dangerous in an interspecies fight? • Sperm plug acts as a chastity belt on females, preventing them from taking anyone else’s genes until the birth of the offspring • Sharks have a bifurcated penis, with one urethra like part for ejaculation and the other one spraying salt water, perhaps to cleanse the female of residual reproductive material. • Maybe characteristics which have been sexually selected are not for reproduction, but rather for signaling good genes. Reproduction could simply be a species trying to create the “perfect: immune system, which again could be the POP (primary operating principle), or one motive. Parental Investment Model (Trivers’) - Explains the biological differences betweens males and females - Bateman’s Principle - Biological women: • Few ova • Care of offspring • Females are “choosy”, males “easy” • Parent who invests the most in the offspring will be the one choosing the healthiest mate - This means women can choose two strategies for sexual reproduction: • Short-term = high testosterone males • Long-term = good with kids 3 Wednesday, February 17, 2016 - Heterosexual biological women were asked what they find most attractive in males. The results were correlated with higher levels of testosterone, such as finding baldness attractive which can be due to high levels of testosterone, which can in turn indicate health. • Interestingly, high levels of testosterone are correlated with higher levels on infidelity. Could this be a biological way to spread good genes? - Darwin also hated Bower Birds; During mating season the males will stand in an open field (not good for survival) and build a bower, an ornate nest structure, which females will inspect upon arrival. If it is to her liking, she will mate with him, as it indicates he will be a good caregiver and “bringer” of resources. 4


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