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by: Hinal Patel

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# ENERGYLECTURENOTESANDOBJECTIVES.pdf

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Hinal Patel

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This 7 page Reader was uploaded by Hinal Patel on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Reader belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
ENERGY LECTURE NOTES 1. KNOW ALL DEFINITIONS:  Energy: the capacity to do work or transfer heat  Work: Organized motion that results a specific physical change through the displacement or movement of an object  Heat: energy transferred as the result of a temperature difference  Thermodynamics: the quantitative study of energy transformations that accompany the chemical and physical changes in matter  Bioenergetics: the branch of thermodynamics that involves living organisms  System: the reaction or set of reactions under observation  Surroundings: the environment around the systems  Universe: the system + surroundings  Enthalpy: the total heat content of a system  Entropy: a measure of the disorder in a system  Delta= means “change in”  Gibbs Free Energy: the energy available to do work 2. THE THREE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS: I. First Law: Energy can never be created or destroyed, but it can be changed form one form to another  Thermodynamics transformations take place in a universe composed of a system and its surroundings. Energy exchange between a system and its surroundings can happen in two ways: heat (q) or work (w)  Closed system: only energy is exchanged  Open system: energy and material is exchanged  Total energy conserved is (equation)  Enthalpy (H) is related to internal energy of the system (E): equation  Calculating the enthalpy change is possible since enthalpy is a state function (the change is dependent only on the initial (reactants) and final (products) states, and not on the pathway that is taken  The standard enthalpy of formation per mole, are 25 degrees celcius, and 1 atm. Units are Kcal/mol or kJ/mol  – tells us if heat is released or absorbed, but not if a reaction is spontaneous!  Spontaneous reactions will occur automatically when left alone (no intervention is required for the process to happen). Some spontaneous processes are exothermic (burning wood) , some spontaneous processes are endothermic (melting ice) or they have no change in enthalpy (diffusion of an ideal gas)  Exothermic Reaction: the system releases heat to its surroundings – is a negative value  Endothermic reaction: the system absorbs heat form the surroundings- is a positive value  Isothermic reaction: there is no exchange of heat with the surroundings- is equal to zero II. Second Law: All spontaneous processes result in an overall increase of disorder in the universe (equation)  Entropy is also a state function in which every spontaneous process results in a positive entropy change in the universe  For example: one clump is considered more ordered than when its broken up into pieces (so more number of pieces= more disordered). Increase in disorder entails matter and energy!  How do living systems counteract entropy? living systems are very ordered, but they increase the disorder of the surroundings (ex: we ingest complex molecules and expel smaller molecules and heat- CO2 and H2O).  Organisms with no change in entropy are considered dead III. Third law: A perfect crystal at zero Kelvin has zero entropy GIBBS FREE ENERGY (GFE)  The entropic and enthalpic components of a reaction can be combined into a general description of spontaneity (insert equation)  Negative delta G indicates the reaction is spontaneous- exergonic  Positive delta G indicates the reaction is non-spontaneous- endergonic  When delta G is zero, the reaction is at equilibrium  GFE will tell us the direction of a reaction when the intial concentration of each component is 1M, at 1 atm, and 25C (if temp not provided)  In biological systems, we make an exception for H+ concentration: when H+ concentration=1 M, this means the pH is 0. Under biological standard conditions, H+ concentration= 1X10^-7= pH of 7  Insert symbol  Calculating GFE: OTHER NOTES:  Coupling reactions can drive endergonic reactions forward  Coupled reactions: o Free Energy values in linked reactions are additive o If net change in insert symbol is negative, product formation is exergonic  Oxidation of biomolecules is an important source of cellular energy  Adenosine triphosphate: a nucleotide that plays an extraordinary role in living cells o Phosphoanhydride bond hydrolysis provides free energy to many biochemical reactions  Example of its phosphoryl group transfer potential  “average” standard free energy of hydrolysis makes it an excellent intermediate  transfers phosphoryl groups from high-energy compounds to low-energy compounds indicates that there is a lot of energy stored in phosphate bonds  ATP is exergonic because 1. High concentration of charges are in close proximity at neutral pH 2. Hydrolyzed products of ATP have more resonance hybrids (ex: orthophosphate, HPO4^2-) 3. Hydrolyzed products of ATP are more easily solvated 4. Increased number of molecules is an increase in entropy * 1. Displays repulsions of charges 2.-4. Is related to entropy SUMMARY: ENERGY LECTURE NOTES 1. KNOW ALL DEFINITIONS: • Energy: the capacity to do work or transfer heat • Work: Organized motion that results a specific physical change through the displacement or movement of an object • Heat: energy transferred as the result of a temperature difference • Thermodynamics: the quantitative study of energy transformations that accompany the chemical and physical changes in matter • Bioenergetics: the branch of thermodynamics that involves living organisms • System: the reaction or set of reactions under observation • Surroundings: the environment around the systems • Universe: the system + surroundings • Enthalpy: the total heat content of a system • Entropy: a measure of the disorder in a system • Delta= means “change in” • Gibbs Free Energy: the energy available to do work 2. THE THREE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS: I. First Law: Energy can never be created or destroyed, but it can be changed form one form to another • Thermodynamics transformations take place in a universe composed of a system and its surroundings. Energy exchange between a system and its surroundings can happen in two ways: heat (q) or work (w) • Closed system: only energy is exchanged • Open system: energy and material is exchanged • Total energy conserved is (equation) • Enthalpy (H) is related to internal energy of the system (E): equation • Calculating the enthalpy change is possible since enthalpy is a state function (the change is dependent only on the initial (reactants) and final (products) states, and not on the pathway that is taken • The standard enthalpy of formation per mole, are 25 degrees celcius, and 1 atm. Units are Kcal/mol or kJ/mol • – tells us if heat is released or absorbed, but not if a reaction is spontaneous! • Spontaneous reactions will occur automatically when left alone (no intervention is required for the process to happen). Some spontaneous processes are exothermic (burning wood) , some spontaneous processes are endothermic (melting ice) or they have no change in enthalpy (diffusion of an ideal gas) • Exothermic Reaction: the system releases heat to its surroundings – is a negative value • Endothermic reaction: the system absorbs heat form the surroundings- is a positive value • Isothermic reaction: there is no exchange of heat with the surroundings- is equal to zero II. Second Law: All spontaneous processes result in an overall increase of disorder in the universe (equation) • Entropy is also a state function in which every spontaneous process results in a positive entropy change in the universe • For example: one clump is considered more ordered than when its broken up into pieces (so more number of pieces= more disordered). Increase in disorder entails matter and energy! • How do living systems counteract entropy? living systems are very ordered, but they increase the disorder of the surroundings (ex: we ingest complex molecules and expel smaller molecules and heat- CO2 and H2O). • Organisms with no change in entropy are considered dead III. Third law: A perfect crystal at zero Kelvin has zero entropy GIBBS FREE ENERGY (GFE) • The entropic and enthalpic components of a reaction can be combined into a general description of spontaneity (insert equation) • Negative delta G indicates the reaction is spontaneous- exergonic • Positive delta G indicates the reaction is non-spontaneous- endergonic • When delta G is zero, the reaction is at equilibrium • GFE will tell us the direction of a reaction when the intial concentration of each component is 1M, at 1 atm, and 25C (if temp not provided) • In biological systems, we make an exception for H+ concentration: when H+ concentration=1 M, this means the pH is 0. Under biological standard conditions, H+ concentration= 1X10^-7= pH of 7 • Insert symbol • Calculating GFE: OTHER NOTES: • Coupling reactions can drive endergonic reactions forward • Coupled reactions: o Free Energy values in linked reactions are additive o If net change in insert symbol is negative, product formation is exergonic • Oxidation of biomolecules is an important source of cellular energy • Adenosine triphosphate: a nucleotide that plays an extraordinary role in living cells o Phosphoanhydride bond hydrolysis provides free energy to many biochemical reactions § Example of its phosphoryl group transfer potential • “average” standard free energy of hydrolysis makes it an excellent intermediate • transfers phosphoryl groups from high-energy compounds to low-energy compoundsà indicates that there is a lot of energy stored in phosphate bonds • ATP is exergonic because 1. High concentration of charges are in close proximity at neutral pH 2. Hydrolyzed products of ATP have more resonance hybrids (ex: orthophosphate, HPO4^2-) 3. Hydrolyzed products of ATP are more easily solvated 4. Increased number of molecules is an increase in entropy * 1. Displays repulsions of charges 2.-4. Is related to entropy SUMMARY:

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