Diversity II Notes Week 5
Diversity II Notes Week 5 211
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 211 at Syracuse University taught by Justine Weber in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life II in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Diversity of Life II Notes Week 5 2/16/16 Fungallike Protists (NOT Fungi) can be unicellular and multicellular can be motile or nonmotile includes slime molds (very loose term) Allan Turing – creator of 1 computer Proposed idea of morphogenesis – development of shape unlike most other organisms, growth and development don’t occur simultaneously in slime molds Slime Molds organism produces trophic stage but lacks cell wall, phagotrophic (feed by engulfing) Trophic stages Amoebae (singlecelled) and Plasmodia (multicelled) lack cell walls, engulf prey and can multiply Phylum Pasmodiophoromycota live inside hosts (endoparasitic), mostly of algae, plants and fungi can cause abnormal enlargement or stunting Plasmodiophora brassicae affects 10% of world’s cabbage, causes clubroot of crucifers black warts of potatoes Cellular slime molds Dictyosteliomycota and Acrasiomycota trophic stages Dictyostelids Dictyostelium discoideum bio equivalent of Drosophila easygrowing, easy to maintain separates growth stage from morphogenic stage important for study of Production of spores on germination Aggregation of amoebae in response to chemical signal in environment (acrasin, cAMP) coming from every other amoebae Pseudoplasmodium (grex/slug_ Genera of Dictyostelids Dictostelium Myxomycetes (Mycetozoa) – Plasmodial Slime Molds (700species described) Phagotrophic highest diversity seen in temperate zones, huge geographical distribution Life Cycle Stages 3 types of uninucleate cells reproductive phase plasmodial slime molds primarily seen on forest floor spores germinated to form haploid amoeboid cells develop flagella fuse to form plasmodium (feeding stage, can really spread out) nuclei dividing synchronously Sporangia meiosis occurs to form haploid spores capilitia – may help in discharging spores (activity related to humidity) consists of twisted hyphal threads can be found all over (bark, leaf litter) many are eaten and dispersed by invertebrates (e.g. beetles) Sporulation and Sporophores changes seem to be irreversible dependent on mpoisture, 4 types of sporangia Clustered has its peridium hypothallus (slimy deposit of a trail it leaves behind as it moves around) Aethalium cushionshaped Pseudoaethalium common hypothallus Plasmo resembles hypo, repro stage Ex. Liceales (toothpaste slime mold) consistency of excretion resembles toothpaste no lime or capillitium very light brown spores most with Echinosteliales (9species) smallest of all known myxomycetes Trichiales hairy looking abundant yellow, orange, or red spores Physarales purplebrown spores abundant lime Stemonitales (chocolate slimes) violetbrown spores beautiful in the field, but tough to grow in lab Ceratiomyxales only group with spores produced externally Kingdom Straminipila OOMYCOTA Seen in Europe, not in USA somewhat analogous to Kingdom Protista aquatic slime molds, kelp, brown algae all have very similar DNA Defining Characteristics filaments cell organelles move freely along filaments cell walls like chitin that make up fungi; made up of glucans and cellulose asexual repro via biflagellate zoospores; sexual repro by oogonia and antheridia – no motile gametes diploid life cycle (2n) is major repro phase Haptoglossa – hosts and habitat remarkably complex and sophisticated structure species infects bactivorous nematodes (eelworms) and rotifers; common in manure/dung piles “Harpoon fungus” – gun cell inverted hypodermic syringe in shape of tube gun fires into nematode has its own unique infection cell ancestry is more aquatic, have basal phylogeny Orders of Oomycetes Phytopsera infesti – responsible for Irish potato famine
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