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Chapter 1

by: Shira Clements

Chapter 1 BSCI105

Shira Clements

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Chapter 1 Textbook Notes
Principles of Biology I
Norma Allewell
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shira Clements on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI105 at University of Maryland taught by Norma Allewell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Maryland.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
Shira Clements  BCSI105 Chapter 1 Biology­ scientific study of life  Emergent properties­ properties that become more complex looking it from a zoomed in way to  zoomed out (cell to body)  - Interactions and arrangements of parts as complexity increases­ can be two different  things­ lead can be lead in pencil or ring Reductionism­ reducing complexity of an organism (DNA vs body) Systems Biology­ the study of combination (whole system) of components that work together Biosphere­ all life on Earth (so everywhere on Earth) Ecosystems­ types of places on Earth where things occur (forest, ocean) Communities­ array of organisms that live in specific ecosystem­  o Species­ one type of organism  Populations­ individuals of species within specific bounds of area Organism­ individual living things Organs/Organ Systems­ body part that carries function in body Tissues­ made up of cells that work together for a specialized function Cells­ fundamental unit and structure Organelles­ functional components within a cell Molecules­ chemical structure containing two or more atoms  (Interactions can cause global warming Energy transformation cause life to occur­ photosynthesis takes light and makes it into energy  exiting as heat) Prokaryotic cells­ cells in bacteria and archea­ DNA is not separated Eukaryotic cells­ cells in other organisms with organelles, nucleus (contains DNA) being the  biggest, cytoplasm­ region between nucleus and outer membrane, chloroplast­ help with  photosynthesis DNA­ have chromosomes which have all genetic material­ each chromosome contains one long  DNA molecule with too many genes - Blueprint for proteins and controls cell - Substances of genes­ units of inheritance that transmit from parent to offspring  Information to build molecules in cell - Have double helix­ two strands in DNA that have nucleotides (chemical building  blocks)­ A, T, C, G Proteins establish cells identity  Gene expression­ process of information in gene directing production of cellular product - All forms of life translate genes into proteins the same way because they have the  same genetic code Genome- all genes Negative feedback- end product slows down that process, like when makes more ATP than it can use, it stops the enzyme at the beginning of process to continue, so no more ATP which is good because they have too much Positive feedback- end product speeds up production- blood clotting in response to injury to seal- tells more platelets to come Evolution- theme of biology- - All organisms came from a common ancestor o life evolves, but still similar features - Three domains- bacteria, archea, and eukarya - Darwin- descent with modification- as time goes on descendants will adapt to environment o created concept of natural selection- only good traits survives o separation of one species can create a few species just because of location since animal will adapt Inductive reasoning- analyzing observations which can lead to logical conclusions - derive generalizations from many specifics Deductive reasoning- general to specific idea using logic Theory- general possibility that is supported by much evidence


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