GEOL 101: Early History of Terrestrial Planets: Lecture 16
GEOL 101: Early History of Terrestrial Planets: Lecture 16 101-017
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 101-017 at University of South Carolina taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Geology 101-017 in Geology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
GEOL 101: Early History of Terrestrial Planets Origin of Solar system The universe is thought to have begun about 14 billion years ago –“Big Bang Theory” o Since then, the universe has expanded to form the galaxies, stars, and planets The best existing explanation for the known observations and physical laws o May not be right, but it’s all we have so far The Nebular Hypothesis o Large gas and dust cloud (Nebula) begins to condense o Primarily gas o Most of the mass is in the center o Turbulence in the outer parts o Contraction of cloud due to gravity o Small chunks grow and collide forming larger aggregates Formation of the sum Saturn’s rings are an example of mass that didn’t get pulled in Chemical Defecation 1) Continents: solidified magma that rose up from the mantle and differentiated 2) Oceans and atmosphere: Fluid outer layer derived from volatile transfer of gas from the interior (and perhaps from comets) Diversity of the inner planets Mercury very hot, many craters, thin helium atmosphere Venus – very hot, covered by lava flows, thick acid atmosphere Earth – usually pretty nice, lots of water, nitrogen oxygen atmosphere Mars – cold, many craters and dry river valleys, thin carbondioxide atmosphere Diversity of the planets Outer planets – gaseous bodies made mainly of hydrogen and helium Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Where did the moon come from? Earth’s moon – o Cold (no atmosphere to hold in heat) o Many craters (shows evidence of period of heavy bombardment by asteroids) o Primarily two rock types: ONLY igneous Basalt (extrusive) Maria (dark) rocks Anorthosite (intrusive) Lunar highlands (light) rocks Sample Exam Questions The Hypotheses that explains the formation of the solar system is referred to as the ____. a. Big Bang Hypothesis b. Origin hypotheses c. Nebular hypothesis d. Planetesimal hypothesis The four inner planets are ___. a. Mostly hot, with heavy, dense atmospheres b. All similar to the Earth in size, atmosphere, and density c. Larger and less dense than the outer planets d. Small rocky and relatively lacking in volatile elements (gases) Which of the following statements about the age of the Earth and Moon is TRUE? a. The Earth is approximately 3 billion years older than the moon b. The Earth and moon are approximately the same age c. The Earth is approximately 1.5 billion years younger than the Moon d. The Earth is approximately 4.5 billion years younger than the Moon What caused dust and condensing material to accrete into planetesimals? a. Gravitational attraction and collisions b. Heating and gases c. Nuclear fusion d. Rotation of the protosun
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