New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 5 In-Class LAST 170 Notes

by: Stef Antonopoulos

Week 5 In-Class LAST 170 Notes LAST 170

Marketplace > LAST 170 > Week 5 In Class LAST 170 Notes
Stef Antonopoulos
GPA 3.75

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes from 2/15 and 2/17 of Week 5 of class
Introduction to Latin America
McKenna, E
Class Notes
Latin America, Latin American, Mexico, Mexican, Government, poverty, Money, Indigenous, european
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Latin America

Popular in Department

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stef Antonopoulos on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LAST 170 at a university taught by McKenna, E in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.

Similar to LAST 170 at University


Reviews for Week 5 In-Class LAST 170 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/17/16
Economic Overview  Mercantilism (1500s­early 1800s)  1. National Wealth measured by bullion (gold, silver)  2. Favorable balance of trade  3. Sea power  4. Colonies  a. Manpower  b. Raw materials  5. Active role of the state  a. Did not permit a lot of other places to have control→ easier independence  Liberalism (1800s­1930)  ● Notions of “Liberty” and “Progress”  ○ “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” (1789 French Revolution  ○ “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness” (1776 U.S. Independence)    ● 1) Free Market Economy/Laissez faire  ○ State not involved  ● 2) Export­oriented strategies  ○ Not relying on other places, all came from one country  ● 3) Reason over faith  ○ Part of idea that science was more important than religion  ○ Separation of church and state  ● 4) Equal Citizenship  ○ Representative democracy  ○ Just overcame colonial system  ■ Did not feel that had role   ○ Progress of independence  ● 5) Progress over Tradition  ○ Referring to the necessity to modernize  ○ Always want to look ahead  Limits of Latin American Liberalism  ● Minimal growth  ● Continued elite control  ● Dependency  1 LAST 170 2/15 Exam 1  ○ Foreign investors for money  ○ Controlled land  ● Final Blow: WWI and 1929­30 Great Depression    Need to reconstruct    What needed to be done?  ● Produce what the rich countries produ​ndustria goods    ● Create a dynamic urban sector with educated population    Import Substitution Industrialization (ISS)  1930s­1980s  ● Raul Prebisch (1901­1985)  ● Director of Economic Commission of Latin America 1930s  ● Early Advocates of Dependency Thesis  ○ World economy systematically disadvantages exporters of primary  products  ○ No one's gonna pay more for raw than industrial good  ● Governments need to start protecting national industry  ● Economic Independence  ○ Substitute imports with domestic products  ● Create jobs for the working class  ● Increased role of state in regulating market  ○ Protectionism for national companies  ■ Nationalizing industries  ● State controls an industry  ○ EX: Electricity is not private owned  ■ Tariff barriers  ● Harder for things produced internationally are harder to  purchase than the national products  ● Incentive  ■ Quotas  ● Can tell what can be imported by other countries  ■ Direct subsidies  ● Paying for certain industries so that they keep prices down  2 LAST 170 2/15 Exam 1  ● Competitive to foreign made/owned products      Side Consequences of ISIS  ● Populism  ○ Candidate that relies on masses backing their ideas  ■ Through attractive, not realistic means  ● Welfare states:  ● State provided Healthcare  ● State provided Education  ● Increased social expenditures  ● Strong social safety needs    Problems with ISI  ● Continued reliance on foreign capital goods  ● Limited domestic markets  ● Low­quality products    Neoliberalism (1980s­1990s)  ● Milton Friedman (1912­2006)  ● Economic freedom is the means for political freedom, not the other way around  ● 1946­1976  ○ University of Chicago  ○ Relationship to Latin American economists known as the “Chicago Boys”  ● 1976  ○ Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences  ● 1988  ○ National Medal of Science Presidential Medal of Freedom    ● Free trade/ Deregulation  ○ Opening national economies to foreign trade and investment  ○ Reduction / removal of tariffs on imports  ○ Deregulation of capital flows / Free trade agreements  ● Privatization  ○ The sale of formerly state­run corporations and public services  ● Restructuring/Reduction of the state  3 LAST 170 2/15 Exam 1  ○ “downsizing” the state  ○ Decentralization of decision­making  Friedman's main arguments: The Proper Role of the Government  ● National defence of citizenry and property rights  ○ Army  ○ Police  ● As “umpire” and “rule­maker”  ● Regulating the monetary framework  Consequences of Neoliberalism  ● Individual emerges as primary unit  ○ ISI=Collective  ● Collective is disempowered (EX: Labor unions)  ○ Working class is disempowered  ■ Extreme wealth disparities  ● Reality is not the same as theory­­ Distinguish between theory and the practice  (David Harvey­Important critic)  New Left Movement (2000s­today)  ○ Characterized by leaders such as Lula (Brazil);  ○ Hugo Chávez (Venezuela); Evo Morales (Bolivia);   ○ Kirchners (Argentina);  ○ Michelle Bachelet (Chile);  ○ Rafael Correa (Ecuador)  ● Response to failed neoliberal policies  ● Varying degrees of state intervention combined with free market principles  4 LAST 170 2/15 Exam 1  CASE STUDY: LAND CONTROL IN  MEXICO  Case Studies  ● In­depth look at several countries  ● Highlight moments that allow for comparisons and contrasts between/among countries  ● Connect past to Present  ● Apply some concepts within a concept    Outline  ● Introduction of Contemporary Issue  ● Mexican Independence  ● Land in the Early Republic  ● Mexican Revolution  ● Land Policies Under Cardenas  ● Zapatistas    Announcements  ● Skidmore and Smith: Chapt. 8 “Mexico: The Taming of a Revolution”  ● CLACS talk response paper due tomorrow      Contemporary Issue: Zapatista Uprising    Ezln Emerges (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional)  ● January 1, 1994  ● Uprising coincided with NAFTA  ● Subcomandante Marcos  ● Fighting for autonomy  1 LAST 170 2/17 Exam 1    HOW DID WE GET HERE?   Mexican Independence (1810­1821)  ● Napoleon’s control of Europe, 1808­1814  ○ King Ferdinand VII    ● Father Miguel Hidalgo: Cry of Dolores, Sept. 16, 1810  ○ Father of Mexican Independence    ● Jose Maria Morelos, proposed “Liberal” Constitution, 1813  ○ Proposed a Liberal Constitution, not liberal in political sense  ■ Ideals of economic and social values  ● Proposed to separate church and state  ○ Church cannot receive money of government to function  ○ Make sure people had right to vote  ○ All people were equal including slaves  ○ Wanted open trade  ○ Right to have private property  ○ Fairly taxed  ■ Captured in process of fighting for independence and was prosecuted    ● General Agustin Iturbide­­ Plan of Iguala, 1821  ○ Declared that Mexico was independent at that point  ○ Empire not a republic  ● Estados Unidos Mexicanos, 1814  ○ Mexican Republic  Land Issues in the Early Republic (1823­1910)  ● Loss of Territory:  ○ Separation of Central America, 1823  ○ Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848  ■ North of Mexico = US  ○ Gadsden Purchase / Venta de la Mesilla, 1854  ■ Mexico lost rest to make today’s border      2 LAST 170 2/17 Exam 1    ● Land Use:  ○ Spectacular inequality in land distribution  ■ Corruption of Power  ○ Mutual land laws  ■ Changeable  ● Did not stay the same  ● Not clear  ○ Disorganized, not a system in place that’s clear  ○ Railroad  ■ 1800s → Increased→ changed value of the land  ● Valuable or not valuable  Porfirio Diaz  ● 1876­1911  ● “PORFIRIATO”  ○ Time in office  ○ Tried to Modernize Mexico  ■ Progress important  ● Reason over faith  ○ Invested in science  ● Foreign investment  ○ Economic approach  ○ Railway  ● Extreme Inequalities  ○ Disparities squeezed people out  ○ Not fair elections  ■ Pushed out professional class  ○ 1908 will not run in 1910  ■ Just kidding, not real intention    Mexican Revolution (1910­1920)  ● Francisco Madero • Victoriano Huerta  ● Three Factions  ●  Venustiano Carranza—1917 Constitution  ● Pancho Villa   ● Emiliano Zapata—Plan of Ayala  ● Land issues in the Mexican Revolution  3 LAST 170 2/17 Exam 1  Francisco Madero  ○ Diaz has him arrested  ○ Called from jail cell for people to revolt  ■ May 1911→ Diaz defeated→ flee  ● 1911­1913  ○ President  ● In Favor of Political Change  ○ Agitated people because they wanted more to be done  ● Calls for Revolution  Victoriano Huerta  ● 1913­1914 (led coo to run)  ● Amy General  ● Unpopular as Leader  ● 3 Faction Emerge  Venustiano Carranza  ● 1917­1920  ● Leader of Constitutionalists Faction  ○ Mexico for Mexicans  ○ Urban  ○ Nationalize foreign owned  land  ○ Caused him to step down  ● Constitution of 1917  Pancho Villa  ● Leader of Northern Faction of the Revolution  ○ Against Huerta too   ● Assassinated, 1923  ○ A wanted man, constantly on the move  ■ Survived mexican revolution  ■ Part to cease fire in 1920  ■ Assassinated because not trusted  4 LAST 170 2/17 Exam 1  Emiliano Zapata  ○ Needed redistribution of land  ● Leader of Southern Faction of the Revolution  ○ Zapatistas in 1910  ○ Sided with Madero  ■ Did not make reforms  ● Turned against him drastically  ● Plan of Ayala  ● Assassinated, 1919    Mexican Revolution and Land Reform  ● Plan of Ayala, 1911  ○ Necessity to give land to peasant pt 6  ○ Enhido Point 7 part of land designated as communal land  ■ Inheritance to pass on land, but do not own it as private property  ● Constitution of 1917  ○ Article 27: returned half of the ejido land to the villages  ○ All natural things in the soil and seas belongs to Mexico  ■ Satisfied desire of Constitutionalists for Mexico for Mexicans    Southern Faction = land reform  Land Policies Under Lazaro Cardenas  ● President 1934­1940  ● National Revolutionary PartyPRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party)  ● Populists/Nationalist tendencies    Populism  ● Supports masses over the elites  ● often uses unorthodox solutions  ○ Cut his own Salary in half to be one of the people  ○ Moved out of presidential home (save money for government, and to be one of  the people)  ● relationship to Nationalism  ○ Land policies  5 LAST 170 2/17 Exam 1  Land Policies Under Cardenas  ● Agrarian Reform  ○ Land to peasants  ○ More than anyone before or after him  ● Nationalization of the Petroleum Industry  Background  ● Neoliberalism  ○ Mexican Debt Crisis  ○ Structural Adjustment Programs  ■ Getting rid of quotas  ● NAFTA  ● President Carlos Salinas (1988­1994)  ○ Gets rid of ejido land protection  Ezlin Achievements  ● Autonomy and Indigenous rights  ● Ceasefire and and negotiations  ● Social projects: education, healthcare and collective development  6 LAST 170 2/17 Exam 1 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.