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Chapter 4

by: Shira Clements

Chapter 4 BSCI105

Shira Clements

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Chapter 4 Textbook Notes
Principles of Biology I
Norma Allewell
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shira Clements on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI105 at University of Maryland taught by Norma Allewell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Maryland.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
Shira Clements BSCI105 Chapter 4- Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Carbon is backbone of life- enters through actions of plants- solar energy to transform atmospheric CO int2 molecules of life Compounds with carbon are organic, inorganic are in nonliving. Formation of Bonds with Carbon- - Carbon has 6 electrons- 4 in outer shell, which can hold 8, so usually covalently bonds o When has 4 single covalent bonds in hybrid orbitals, the angles are similar to a tetrahedron (109.5 angle) o When two carbons are bonded by a double bond, the atoms bonded to those atoms now lie on the same plane as the carbons o Bonds with H, O, N the most o CO c2n be considered inorganic because it lacks hydrogen, even though it has carbon and is important to living creatures o Carbon chains form the skeleton of most organic molecules Hydrocarbons- organic molecules consisting of only hydrogen and carbon - Hydrogen is attached to carbon where electrons are available for covalent bonding - Major part of petroleum- fossil fuel - Regions of cells that contain hydrogen and carbon, even though hydrocarbons don’t really pertain to living animals o Fats- long hydrocarbon tail attached to nonhydrocarbon component - Don’t dissolve in water because most bonds are H-C which are nonpolar - Release large amount of energy when bonds are broken o Gas that fuels cars Isomers- variation in architecture of organic molecules- different structure/properties with same number of atoms of the same elements - Structural isomers- differ in covalent arrangements of atom- straight in one but branched in another (C H 5-12ncrease in variations when they increase in size - Cis-trans isomers- carbons have covalent bonds to same atoms, but these atoms differ in spatial arrangement due to the inflexibility of the double bonds. Single bonds allow them to move freely without changing compound (placement) o if a double bond joins two carbon atoms, and each C also has two different atoms attached to it, then two distinct cis-tans isomers are possible. When Cl is on same side, it is trans, when Cl is on opp sides is is trans. Can effect bonding - Enantiiomers- isomers that are mirror images of each other and differ in shape due to the presence of an asymmetric carbon- one that is attached to 4 diff atoms o Basically mirror image, but acts differently because whole this is backwards- right hand wont fit into left handed glove Functional groups- chemical groups affect molecular function by being directly involved in chemical reactions - participate in chemical reactions in characteristics way from one organic molecule to another - Hydroxyl Group- (--OH)- hydrogen atom is bonded on oxygen atom, which bonds to carbon skeleton o Name of compound- most alcohol (end in –ol) – ethanol ethanol o Polar- electrons spend more time near electronegative oxygen atoms  Can form hydrogen bonds with water, helping dissolve solvents - Carbonyl- (CO)- carbon atoms double bonded to a O atom o Name of compound- ketones (CO is within carbon structure- acetone) or aldehydes (if CO is at end of carbon structure) o Ketone and aldehyde may just be structural isomers with different properties  Found in sugars - Carboxyl Group- (-COOH)- O is double bonded to carbon Compounds atom which is also bonded to OH with both o Name of Compound- Carboxylic acid carboxyl group and o Acts as acid- donate H+ because covalent bond between O and H are so polar amino are o Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1- - Amino- (-NH )2 consists of N bonded with 2 H added to C skeleton o Name of compound- amines o Acts as base, pick up H+ from surrounding solution o Found in cells in this ionized form with a charge of 1+ - Sulfhydrl- (-SH)- sulfur atom bonded to H atom o Name of compound Thoils o Two sulfhydrl groups can react, forming a covalent bond- helps stablize protein structure - Phosphate- phosphorus atom bonded to 4 O atoms and one O is bonded to C skeleton and 2 O carry negative charge o Name of compound- organic phosphates  Backbone for phospholipids o Contributes negative charge to molecule o Molecule with phosphate groups have potential to react with water- releasing energy - Methyl- (-CH 3- carbon bonded to three hydrogen atoms o Methylated compounds o Addition of methyl group to DNA or molecules bound to DNA affects expression of genes o Arrangements of methyl in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function ATP- complicated organic phosphate - Organic molecule called adenosine- 3 phosphate groups attached by a string - One phosphate might split off as a result of a reaction of water- which will make is ADP - Stores potential to react with water, which will then release energy


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