Modern European History Notes #4
Modern European History Notes #4 HIST 3480
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Holub on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3480 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Richard Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Europe in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Paige DeWitt-Holub 02/15 “Industrial Revolution, 1780-1840 Population 1)Agricultural Revolution 2)Risk-Taking Gentry 3)Foreign Markets Domestic Markets Act of Union, 1707 4) Inventions 1733-93 Spinning Jenny Cotton Gin Eli Whitney Steam Engine T Newcomen, 1712 Sames Watt, 1763 M. Boulton Cotton 1760 2.5 M 1787 22. M 1837 366 M 5) Transportation Turnpike Acts Canals, 1759 Railroad R. Fulton, 1807 G. Stephenson, 1825 Patents Tariffs” -the Industrial Revolution increased the economic products produced for a profit -most everything is a result of industrialization -Industrial Revolution produces new social classes (city middle class/industrial citizen working class), ideas -why Britain first??? There was similar efforts that floundered in China – 1. Industrial first 2. keep a lead -Belgium is second around 1800’s -Americans/Germans 1840’s-50’s -French from 1820 (post Nap), Eastern Europe – 1880/90’s Russians -the phrase Industrial Revolution, was the fact that it took over half a decade to be qualified as a revolution -Phyllis Dean, what is the cause of the Industrial Revolution? – shared factors: -1. Population growth (**refer to population chart of England and Wales) -slows down after 1870’s, contraception -faster growth in England, particularly between 1780 to 1840 --------------- consequences of the Agricultural Revolution for Industrialization: 1. Agricultural Productivity increases pretty rapidly in 18 century New England, if you aren’t paying all your money on necessities, a market of demand has been created 2. Agricultural Revolution pushes people off of their land 3. Fall in the age of marriage -2. Risk-taking Gentry: people risk-taking are those with a little deed property (1,000 acres), money to invest and used to taking risks – similar to plantations with the business aspect in mind in mid-18 century Europe 1. Agricultural Revolution: -1780’s-90’s – factories start being built by large-scale ‘urban’ farmers -1750 and after, England has taken over the oceans after the 7 Year’s War and has the autonomy to do so -3. Foreign Markets: Britain is largely in control, French off to the side, Dutch are losing everything. Britain controls North America -India is conquered by Britain-New Latin/South American plantation markets -“The British merchant could sell more, if only more could be produced, the question was on the supply side….”- famous historian -Act of Union 1707 – The beginning of Great Britain/UK/Scotland – no/few taxes on goods between Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Britain -> less merchants begging for small amounts of the spoils of effective trade -1820-1840-expanded to central Europe (Germany, France) -the middle class in the city – 1800 – population of London has about a couple hundred thousands of people who could have expendable cash to buy wants – increase all markets -textile industries – cotton, looking “nice” was from the same style/fashion, but this only occurred post-industrialization/ before no system to buttons, sewing, etc. -4) Inventions: -Spinning Jenny – 1767, spinning wheel -> putting-out system, will allow one operator to run 16 wheels all at once -Cotton Gin – 1794, short staple -productivity: 200-300% productivity in the production of cloth goods -in-between putting-out was more centered at a work space to create fabrics -7-10 hours a day, with a supervisor now instead of the putting out system -workshop in partly to control stealing materials -power source: water mills, sometimes animals -*steam engine*- invented 1712 by Thomas Newcomen -burn coal/wood and trap the steam to move gears – efficiency comes later -James Watt, 1763 – University of Glasgow professor, goes into business with Mathew Boulton (metal maker in Birmingham), bring their $$$$ updated steam technology all around Europe -essentially build a company everything to run this factory near a seasonal stream -might also need a $$$$ steam engine to run during the unreliable classes -changing to steam-power meant that you didn’t really need a lot of water -cost of labor, transition from water to steam is slowww – 1835 – a discussion about steam taking over becomes a real thing -1820’s-30’s- more labor in Manchester and Sheffield -feudal practices have been replaced and creates entirely new industrious markets -1760 2.5 M -1787 22. M -1837 366 M pounds of cotton -Transportation: basic roads (1700’s) -better roads in England were 1,500 + years old and left from Romans in the 1700’s -5) Transportation –> Turnpike Acts, charge a fee and responsible for ***maintaining the roads -1759 – the beginning of the “Canal Age” -1810-20 – England is full of Canals – Canals powered by animals -barges, could bring 50k’s of coal, etc., as opposed to maybe 2k’s on wagons -*coal, London started depleting the wood by 1500’s, so the coal industry from Newcastle started picking up more coal -canals start to end with the railroads -Robert Fulton’s paddle-wheel steamers, 1807 -> tourism, casinos (can’t build a casino on land – loop hole) George Stephenson – 1825, build a prototype line about 25 miles long, 35 cars , 80 miles of coal and flower -*hit a top speed of 25 miles per hour -he called his engine: “Locomotion” -by 1850 – they are in Germany and this country -high levels of capitalism, iron, labor -successful in Britain because… 1. England industrializes before any other competitors, most factories failed quickly -2. 1880-90 begins to catch-up around that time - effort to stop heavy foreign industrialization, hold back industrial transformation -French Rev. makes Europe take awhile for the continent heal -Patents: to protect against foreign competitors - TPP -RR’s might condemn the land to utilize it for railroads, tariffs imposed on certain things Paige DeWitt-Holub 02/17 “Working Class (1780-1840) Urban Middle Class Factory Stabotage “Deer in the Plow” Hours Days Child Labor Off-Fall Shaming Mines Urban Slumbs Diet Le Chapelier Law Combination Acts, 1799, 1800 Classical Liberalism 1820-70 “Natural Laws” Adam Smith Political Economy T-Malthus (1766-1834) Essays on Populations, 1798 D. Richardo (1772-1823) “Iron Law of Wages” Subsistence Wages C. Dickens A Christmas Carol Scrooge” -Social transformations involved in the Industrial Revolution: social class of working class – reliant on wage and “skills” of whatever jobs they learned or signed-up for -> mining jobs, factory jobs, servant jobs (for the middle class) (90% young adult females) -new jobs are centered in the middle class (bankers, merchants, government – high ranking, aristocratic-like loaners) -> then, we have teachers, shop owners/managers/secretaries -the aristocrats with a lot of land and plebian/peasants are going away slowly but surely th -1890’s early 20 even – factories originate iththe sponsorship of the rich – these were inspired by prisons in the late 17 century – keeping the working penned-up was the goal, abide by the factory mechanisms’ pace or get fired -Sabotage (sabot= Dutch wooden shoe) throw the wooden shoe in the machine to try to make the job stop -visible clock, audible chime/bell – if you didn’t follow this all correctly you might have difficulty ever getting hired again -“Deer in the Plow” – first generations of level of workings were so vast and families continued in their footsteps -6-7x a week, 12-16 hrs. a week, only earned enough to pay for the necessities to buy food -sexism rampant and women were paid significantly less -if worked in rural agricultural areas as well, as a young one, you’d be closer to home ->preferred women who were not married yet and boys and girls -> easier to stifle complaints -population of Europe was rising rapidly -people used this factory work as a last resort and many factories began trying to get poor orphans in orphanages and other people in extreme poverty to work -4 might be one of the youngest (for menial and particular tasks), 8 might be the best -“Off-Fall” factory by-product, might have tied up a young child to the machine to force them to work and clean-up -Shaming was relatively effective with the older adolescents -refer to handout: “Employment of Children in 1833” – by 1800 this was not recorded -these factory workers had to breathe in fibers and industrial products without much light (candle, oil) -by 1820, the mines of tin, copper, lead, zinc, ironstone, coal, etc. were deeply mined at this point – young women, pre-pubescent, young girls/children 8-12 years maybe, someone would take a basket of raw materials upwards and then more people would contribute to the production -> mines are gross and life-threatening/draining -some kind of industrial accident was going to happen where you were going to get injured -“Poor Relief Office” no-unemployment Living Conditions: 1 City Slums – 17,000 people produced a new range of movement into the cities 1830’s -old housing stocks divided up to be made to fit more families -large family (7+) sharing an apartment space that has little to no separation of closeness -not much sanitary garbage and sewer disposal methods, man stands closer to the street as a “chivalrous” way to protect from cars/as opposed to in the 1800’s when he would stand on the inside so if someone threw something out of the building he’d protect her -apartment buildings had chamber pot bucket grossness -cold running water in London is sent to London in ~1880, running water every where else was at the turn of the century -Thomas Malthus found that working class families had no sexual restraint in the cities, post-1870’s birth control ~birth control tangent, initially based on the pull-out method until the late 19 century -housing near factories soon became factory housing, even the owner lived there -diseases spread: cholera, typhus, tb, prostitution -> laws about preventing this and increasing life-expectancy in correlation to work do not exist for many decades -alcohol, prostitution -$ and self-employed -diet – father eats because he makes the money, then the kids eat (future, retirement investment), mother eats the least -Le Chapelier Law – anti-combination law in France -Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800 in England -> managers and under the table leaders of the factories might be jailed for trying to fix wages wages in England go falteringly upwards by 1850 In the cities, everyone lived relatively together, until the railroads are invented in 1840’s -can smell, hear, expose middle class families living in conjunction to the perils of factory work -“Classical Liberalism (1820-70), Economic Liberalism, etc. – so a new view to the center stage of a stable middle class/bankers/lawyers, lower in middle class but better – doctors/professors/bankers -even meager jobs as secretaries have a better life in terms of money paid and damage inflicted -“The New Industrial Economy” seems to turn inwards upon itself people want to figure out what is happening with this new industrially centered economy, what are these conceptual “Laws of the Market” that are changing the pace of society ------- natural, inevitable?/ also referred to as the Manchester School of (Despairing) Thought -Adam Smith, this is no longer “Enlightened”, this is competitive -society and economy are assumedly interconnected, intertwined, and caused by each other -Thomas Malthus, begins to pose more statements with the higher- intellectuals called “Essay on Population, 1798” -Malthus predicts that population growth will exceed any and all food supplies – maybe the reason why we have famines today -think: Why do we have famines in our modern society? -Malthus grabs the ears of many great leaders and thinkers, but in the 1803 edition, the reason why the population is growing exponentially is that people only strive to procreate intentionally or unintentionally -> relatively factual information about the 3 world countries were implicated in his third addition, but of course, he is referring to Englishpersons in poverty results: 1. Relief for the underclasses is futile and is a waste of society’s energy and order 2. Lasting effects shed societal assurance onto the individual -(church standing of poverty based in morality): feed the poor… indefinitely? until it is solved -all considered the poor irresponsible
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