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Chapter 5 Integumentary System

by: Kaitlin Notetaker

Chapter 5 Integumentary System BIOL 243 001

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Biology > BIOL 243 001 > Chapter 5 Integumentary System
Kaitlin Notetaker
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

These notes cover the integumentary system which will be on our next exam
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Lewis Bowman
Class Notes
biology 243, Bio, Human Anatomy, bowman, Lewis Bowman, University of South Carolina
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlin Notetaker on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
Sunday, February 21, y Chapter 5 The Integumentary System ­ consists  of skin, hair, nails, glands, nerves (associated with skin) ­ general  functions ­ where our body meets the outside world • generalized category of protection from bacteria ­ bacteria  can’t get in through skin unless there is a wound • waterproof ­ outside water rolls off, keeps the water we need inside without  evaporation  • protection from UV from sun  • involved in regulating body temperature ­ when you’re hot, start sweating to cool  down  • can excrete substances like NaCl and urea • involved in sensation  • vitamin D production ­ essential for absorption of nutrients  ­ two  major parts to the skin ­ epidermis and dermis • epidermis ­ made up of epithelial tissue (stratified squamous) ­ comprising  cells ­ keratinocytes (90­95%) • protect from bacteria, make skin waterproof, skin color  • basement membrane separates epidermis from dermis (order bottom > top) ­ deepest  layer of cells is the stratum basale • most active in cell division     ratum  spinosum  • little bit of cell division, filling up with keratin intermediate filaments  1 Sunday, February 21, y      ratum   granulosum  •  filling up with various lipids      ratum   lucidum ­  •   extra layer only found in thick skin ­ on palms of hands and soles of feet stratum         corneum • contains dead cells (20­30 layers), has keratin inside cells and various  lipids and glycolipids outside (between) cells so ­ , water can't penetrate with so skin is waterproof ­ cells found in epidermis: • melanocytes ­ produces different amounts of melanin pigment (more=darker) ­ protects  from UV light and radiation • dendritic cells “langerhan” ­ active in phagocytosis  • merkel’s cells ­ involved in nerve receptors and light touch • dermis ­  apillary  layer ­ most superficial • contains papillae ­ indentations of dermis that go into the epidermis ­ where  nerves and capillaries are found  ­ nutrients  are able to diffuse easier into the epidermis • made of areolar tissue reticular         layer  • comprised of dense irregular connective tissue • hypodermis 2 Sunday, February 21, y ­ consists  of areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue  not ­  considered part of the “skin” ­ deep to the skin  ­ glands  associated with the skin • sweat glands 1 ­ . eccrine sweat glands ­ produces sweat that is deposited onto the surface • empty directly onto the skin • secretes water, sodium chloride and urea  • location: ­ found  all over the body except nipples, hips, and external genitalia ­ most  numerous on hands and feet  • for cooling purposes: ­ firs sweat appears on our forehead • for cold sweat: ­ firs sweat appears on hands, becomes “clammy” • mode of secretion: merocrine ­ by exocytosis ­ 2. apocrine sweat glands ­ fairly large • secrete fatty, oily substance  ­ secrete  into hair follicles, not directly onto skin • found in armpits, external genetalia, scrotum • mode of secretion: merocrine  3.  ­  ceruminous sweat glands • secrete cerumin “earwax” 3 Sunday, February 21, y ­ mode  of secretion: apocrine • sebaceous glands ­ secrete  sebum (oily substance) • secreted into hair follicles functions ­ :  • keeps skin from drying out, slightly toxic to bacteria • acne is an infection to the sebaceous gland mode ­  of secretion is holocrine ­ cells fill up with oily substance and bursts ­ Hair • hair follicle  • shaft ­ part of the hair that “sticks up” out of the skin • root – embedded into the follicle • bulb ­ deepest part of the follicle (most important part)  ­ hair matrix ­ contains dividing cells  ­ Skin Complications: • burns  ­  irs  degree burn ­ skin is reddened: a mild sunburn  • only the epidermis is affected ­  econd   degree burn ­ reddened and blistered • epidermis and dermis are affected ­  hir  degree burn ­  4 Sunday, February 21, y • epidermis and entire dermis are destroyed ­ can only regenerate from the  edges • bacteria has direct contact with inside of body and infection is easy to occur • tumorous carcinomas ­  asale   cell carcinoma ­ arises from basale layer of epidermis  • central ulcer on the outside of the skin  • will invade if not surgically removed squamous ­     cell carcinoma ­ arises from stratum spinosum  • presents as a raised, reddened elevation (sometimes with other pigmentation) ­ sometimes  will metastasize ­ can borough through dermis and move to other parts of skin • can be cured with surgery and proper drugs ­  alignant   melanoma ­ arise from melanocytes (cells that produce melanin) • pigmented: black, blue red; asymmetrical; indentations around border; large • can spread rapidly and are very dangerous 5


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