Chapter 5 Integumentary System
Chapter 5 Integumentary System BIOL 243 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlin Notetaker on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 243 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
Sunday, February 21, y Chapter 5 The Integumentary System consists of skin, hair, nails, glands, nerves (associated with skin) general functions where our body meets the outside world • generalized category of protection from bacteria bacteria can’t get in through skin unless there is a wound • waterproof outside water rolls off, keeps the water we need inside without evaporation • protection from UV from sun • involved in regulating body temperature when you’re hot, start sweating to cool down • can excrete substances like NaCl and urea • involved in sensation • vitamin D production essential for absorption of nutrients two major parts to the skin epidermis and dermis • epidermis made up of epithelial tissue (stratified squamous) comprising cells keratinocytes (9095%) • protect from bacteria, make skin waterproof, skin color • basement membrane separates epidermis from dermis (order bottom > top) deepest layer of cells is the stratum basale • most active in cell division ratum spinosum • little bit of cell division, filling up with keratin intermediate filaments 1 Sunday, February 21, y ratum granulosum • filling up with various lipids ratum lucidum • extra layer only found in thick skin on palms of hands and soles of feet stratum corneum • contains dead cells (2030 layers), has keratin inside cells and various lipids and glycolipids outside (between) cells so , water can't penetrate with so skin is waterproof cells found in epidermis: • melanocytes produces different amounts of melanin pigment (more=darker) protects from UV light and radiation • dendritic cells “langerhan” active in phagocytosis • merkel’s cells involved in nerve receptors and light touch • dermis apillary layer most superficial • contains papillae indentations of dermis that go into the epidermis where nerves and capillaries are found nutrients are able to diffuse easier into the epidermis • made of areolar tissue reticular layer • comprised of dense irregular connective tissue • hypodermis 2 Sunday, February 21, y consists of areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue not considered part of the “skin” deep to the skin glands associated with the skin • sweat glands 1 . eccrine sweat glands produces sweat that is deposited onto the surface • empty directly onto the skin • secretes water, sodium chloride and urea • location: found all over the body except nipples, hips, and external genitalia most numerous on hands and feet • for cooling purposes: firs sweat appears on our forehead • for cold sweat: firs sweat appears on hands, becomes “clammy” • mode of secretion: merocrine by exocytosis 2. apocrine sweat glands fairly large • secrete fatty, oily substance secrete into hair follicles, not directly onto skin • found in armpits, external genetalia, scrotum • mode of secretion: merocrine 3. ceruminous sweat glands • secrete cerumin “earwax” 3 Sunday, February 21, y mode of secretion: apocrine • sebaceous glands secrete sebum (oily substance) • secreted into hair follicles functions : • keeps skin from drying out, slightly toxic to bacteria • acne is an infection to the sebaceous gland mode of secretion is holocrine cells fill up with oily substance and bursts Hair • hair follicle • shaft part of the hair that “sticks up” out of the skin • root – embedded into the follicle • bulb deepest part of the follicle (most important part) hair matrix contains dividing cells Skin Complications: • burns irs degree burn skin is reddened: a mild sunburn • only the epidermis is affected econd degree burn reddened and blistered • epidermis and dermis are affected hir degree burn 4 Sunday, February 21, y • epidermis and entire dermis are destroyed can only regenerate from the edges • bacteria has direct contact with inside of body and infection is easy to occur • tumorous carcinomas asale cell carcinoma arises from basale layer of epidermis • central ulcer on the outside of the skin • will invade if not surgically removed squamous cell carcinoma arises from stratum spinosum • presents as a raised, reddened elevation (sometimes with other pigmentation) sometimes will metastasize can borough through dermis and move to other parts of skin • can be cured with surgery and proper drugs alignant melanoma arise from melanocytes (cells that produce melanin) • pigmented: black, blue red; asymmetrical; indentations around border; large • can spread rapidly and are very dangerous 5
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