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Week 3 Cells and DNA

by: Melinda Notetaker

Week 3 Cells and DNA ANSC 101

Melinda Notetaker
CSU Chico
GPA 3.25

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About this Document

This covers the functions and structures of the cell and DNA. Sorry these notes were late, I had appointments that caused me to be late on this. I hope these notes can still help you in any way!
Introduction to Animal Science
Haydn Clement
Class Notes
ANSC 101, Introduction to Animal Science
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melinda Notetaker on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 101 at California State University Chico taught by Haydn Clement in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Agricultural & Resource Econ at California State University Chico.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
February 9, 2016 Week 3 The Cell and DNA Why study cells?  Cells make tissues o Tissues make organs (heart)  Organs make systems (respiratory)  Systems make the animal/human  Cell function is complex- when we understand the cell, we understand the organism Prokaryotes:  live independently  simple  few structures  move by flagella  No nucleus  divide by fission (not mitosis) Mammalian cell: Eukaryote: Plant cell:  unique structure 1. large vacuole 2. cell wall 3. chlorophyll Nucleus:  Contains DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)  Keeps DNA separate  Controls access to DNA Ribosomes:  Surface for protein synthesis (translation)  Two subunits : large and small units- attaches to endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) Genes:  Segment of DNA  Code for protein o Protein causes the effect in other words proteins make the effect Protein synthesis:  Gene expression: ( gene sends message to) mRNA in nucleus, then leaks out to ribosome (ER) to make protein Endoplasmic Reticulum:  Initial modification of protein, lipid synthesis, helps proteins become biologically active Golgi bodies:  More protein modification, mature protein, sorts protein, packages protein for delivery Cytoskeleton:  Organizes mitosis forms spindle apparatus, and provides structure of cell Mitochondria (Powerhouse):  Makes ATP (adenosine triphosphate), uses Oxygen, produces Carbon Dioxide Eat- Food Digested- Amino Acids/Fats/ Sugars abstracted from intestine to blood- and cell takes nutrients and produce ATP or other protein Cell Membrane:  How things come in or out, diffusion, passive transport (no energy), Active transport (energy required) DNA:  Deoxyribonucleic Acid- blueprint for all form and function  Makes up the chromosomes  Double helix- two DNA strands linked together by Hydrogen bonds between bonds  Built from nucleotides Nucleotide:  Composed of: 1. Ribose sugar 2. Phosphate group 3. Nitrogen base February 11, 2016  4 Nucleotides make up DNA  All Chromosomes made up those 4 nucleotides  Gene code for proteins based on the precise sequence of these 4 nucleotides o Thymine o Cytosine o Adenine o Guanine  Nucleotides pair very specifically: o Adenine with Thymine o Guanine with Cytosine  Somatic cell to nucleus to chromosomes Number of chromosomes Humans 46 Swine 38 Cat 38 Cattle 60 Sheep 54 Dog 78 Horse 64 Goat 60  We make new DNA every time the cells divide (Mitosis)  Double helix unwinds and new DNA is assembled onto the old strands which serves as templates for the new  DNA is replicated during cell cycle to prepare for cell division  Each cell goes through cell cycle to divide  Cell division is how tissues grow  Each cell needs exact copy of all chromosomes  Synthesis Phase: replication of DNA  M= Mitosis During synthesis phase of cell cycle: chromosome makes a mirror image or sister chromatid  When mitosis is complete, the cell divides providing 2 new cells – each with a complete set of chromosomes  Each set of chromosomes contains within its sequence a set of genes that is unique to that chromosome  23 pairs in human – ½ from mom (23) – ½ from dad (23) Gene: specific segment of DNA that codes for a specific trait Promoter: Start site: where the gene begins : the “on” switch Introns: non coding regions (Junk DNA or is it) Exons: coding regions: where mRNA comes from Step 1 = Transcription 1. Genes is turned on DNA unwinds at start site 2. DNA polymerase sits on promoter and “transcribes” or copies the genes Happens in the 3. The copy is called messenger RNA or mRNA nucleus - When mRNA is made G pairs with C and A pairs with U (Uracil) - RNA is single stranded Transcription  Completed in nucleus  mRNa is translocated through nuclear pore to the cytoplasm  mRNA find a ribosome ( in Endoplasmic Reticulum)  Ribosome begins Step 2 of protein synthesis Step 2 = Translation  mRNA is “translated” or read by the ribosome and made into protein -mRna is read in sets of 3 nucleotides callcodons  Each codons calls for a single amino acid  Transfer RNA: bring the appropriate amino acid to the Ribosome for protein synthesis  Ribosome matches the right tRNA with the codon  tRNA carry the “anti-codon” to match the codon on mRNA  When codon and anti-codon match, the amino acid is deposited on the growing amino acid chain REVIEW 1. Why is DNA replicated? 2. When is DNA replicated? (Synthesis Phase of cell cycle) 3. What is a gene? 4. What happens when a gene is expressed? 5. What are the two steps for protein synthesis? 6. Where does each step of protein synthesis occurs?


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