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Anatomy and Physiology 2

by: Ashlee Wilson

Anatomy and Physiology 2 BIOL 2020

Marketplace > University of Memphis > Biology > BIOL 2020 > Anatomy and Physiology 2
Ashlee Wilson
University of Memphis
GPA 3.3

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chapter 20 notes
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Martha Brown
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlee Wilson on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2020 at University of Memphis taught by Martha Brown in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 02/17/16
A&P chapter 20 The Heart Location of the Heart  The heart is located in the mediastinum. Pericardium • The heart is enclosed and held in place by the pericardium. • Consist of an outer fibrous pericardium and an inner serous pericardium. • 2 layers - Visceral & Parietal • These layers are separated by the serous cavity. (fluid filled space) Layers of the Heart Wall • Epicardium • Myocardium • Endocardium Chambers of the Heart • Include 2 upper atria and 2 lower ventricles Right Atrium • Receives blood from the superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus. Right Ventricle • Receives blood from the right atrium and sends blood to the lungs. Left Atrium • Receives blood from the pulmonary veins. Left Ventricle • Receives blood fro the left atrium and sends blood all over the body • The wall of the left ventricle is much thicker than any of the other 3 chambers. Fibrous Skeleton • Forms foundation for which the heart valves attach • Serves as a point of insertion for cardiac muscle bundles • Prevents overstretching of valves • Acts as an electrical insulator Heart Valves and Circulation of Blood • The valves open and close in response to pressure changes when the heart relaxes and contracts. • Right and left atrioventricular valves prevent backflow of the blood. • Right and left semilunar valves prevent back flow into the ventricles. • When one set of valves is open, the other is closed. The conduction system  Average resting rate is 75.  Cardiac muscle cells are self-excitable, and therefore, autorhythmic  Authorhythmic fibers in the SA node are the natural pacemaker of the heart. Action Potential in a Ventricular Fiber  Refractory period- period in which another action potential does not occur.  Sustained contraction- tetanus is the ability of muscle cells to maintain contractions.  Systole- top number average between 110-140.  Diastole bottom number average between 70-90.  Action Potential Propagation Through the Heart. -1- depolarization of atrial contractile fibers produces P wave -2- Atrial systole (contraction) -3- depolarization of ventricular contractile fibers produces QRS complex -4- Ventricular systole (contraction) -5- Repolarization of ventricular contractile fibers produces T wave -6- Ventricular diastole (relaxation) The Cardiac Cycle  One cycle consists of systole and diastole of both atria, rapidly followed by the systole and diastole of both ventricles.  Electricalevents, pressure changes, heart sounds, volume changes, and mechanical events. Cardiac Output  Is the volume of blood ejected from the left or right ventricle into the aorta or pulmonary truck each minute.  Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of the ventricle in one beat.


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