Psych 361, Week 5
Psych 361, Week 5 Psych 361
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
2.8.16 • The Apgar Scale (acronym) o Used to measure a newborn’s health § Appearance: newborns are initially blue/gray color; but more time on mother, they become more pink § Pulse: heartbeat is either absent, slow or rapid § Grimace: may give a pinch to see if infant gives no response, grimaces or cries § Activity: limp, weak, not really moving or strong and active § Respiration: respiratory distress or baby has a healthy cry o Rated on a scale of 0, 1, or 2 § Scores of 7-‐10 are very good § Scores of 4-‐6 are low § Scores below 3 are critical • Reflexes o Involuntary movement in response to particular stimuli § Thrashing: occurs when face is covered; thrashes around until to get what is covering their face off of them § Rooting: newborn turns head toward anything that brushes against their cheek (supports breastfeeding) § Sucking: newborns suck anything put to their lips (supports breastfeeding) § Grasping: grasps anything that strokes their palm § Stepping: will step when placed upright with their feet on a solid surface • Birthweight Consequences o Most newborn deaths and illnesses are in low birthweight babies o LBW is associated with respiratory distress at birth and breathing difficulty (underdeveloped lungs) o VLBW o Low Birthweight (LBW) § Less than 5.5 pounds at birth o Very Low Birthweight (VLBW) § Under 3 lbs, 5 oz at birth o Extremely Low Birthweight (ELBW) § Under 2 lbs, 3 oz at birth • Preterm: delivery before 37 weeks • LBW Risk Factors o Social Risk Factors (poverty, single parent, stress) and Personal Risk Factors (smoking, alcohol usage, poor nutrition, age) ClickerQ: Which of the following is used to define preterm birth? Birth that occurs before 37 weeks • Preterm and Small for Gestational Age o Preterm § delivery before 37 weeks § associated with LBW o Small for gestational age (SGA) – much worse than low birthweight § Some are actually full term, they just § Birthweight is lower than expected § Impairment throughout prenatal development § More likely to die before first birthday, to get infections and show evidence of brain damage § Maternal or fetal illness, maternal drug use and maternal malnutrition can cause SGA o Large for Gestational Age § Over 9lbs, 15oz § Often related to gestational diabetes, obesity § Big, tall parents tend to bear big babies § C-‐section may be necessary (can complicate birth) • Sleeping o Newborns sleep on average 15 to 17 hours a day § 50% of sleep is spent in REM sleep (resembles activity while awake, vital for growth of central nervous system) o Newborns sleep for 1-‐3 hours at a time § Need to feed every 3 hours (nursing session can take an hour) • Breastfeeding o Breast milk is the optimal nourishment for babies § Breastfed babies gain weight faster § Less chance of obesity later § Fewer illnesses and allergies § Decreased risk of SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) § Boost in IQ § Nipples can become cracked and infected from breastfeeding though § There are so many benefits to breastfeeding, why can’t a mother breastfeed in public? • Covering the baby will evoke the thrashing that was mentioned earlier • Let mothers be! 2 § Breastfeeding helps uterus shrink back to normal size after birth § Placenta is attached to uterus; breastfeeding stops the bleeding and contracts uterus back to normal size § Helps mother lose baby weight § Promotes bond between mother and baby • Cuddling and Crying o Newborns want love and affection!! They want to be held and this is not something that will “spoil” them § Letting a baby “cry it out” is not a healthy solution § Babies need to have control over their environment and need to know that they can trust their caregivers o Newborns cry when: § They are hungry § They need to be changed § They need comfort § They need stimulation § They are too hot or cold § They are in pain or are ill (Colic – persistent crying which is often due to a dairy sensitive) Before an infant cries, they give subtle signs that some parents are privy to and they have rarely crying babies. ClickerQ: Which of the following is NOT a benefit of breastfeeding? - It lowers breast and ovarian cancer rates in the mothers - Increases IQ in the children - Decreases allergies in the children - Decreases the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) ALL OF THE ABOVE! 3
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