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Psych 361, Week 5

by: BoseAmosun

Psych 361, Week 5 Psych 361

GPA 3.12

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About this Document

Chapter 2: Conception to Birth Part III: Introducing the Newborn
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Carrie Cuttler
Class Notes
Psych 361, Newborn, Conception, birth, developmental psych
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 02/17/16
 2.8.16   •   The  Apgar  Scale  (acronym)   o   Used  to  measure  a  newborn’s  health   §   Appearance:  newborns  are  initially  blue/gray  color;  but  more  time  on   mother,  they  become  more  pink     §   Pulse:  heartbeat  is  either  absent,  slow  or  rapid     §   Grimace:  may  give  a  pinch  to  see  if  infant  gives  no  response,  grimaces  or   cries     §   Activity:  limp,  weak,  not  really  moving  or  strong  and  active   §   Respiration:  respiratory  distress  or  baby  has  a  healthy  cry   o   Rated  on  a  scale  of  0,  1,  or  2   §   Scores  of  7-­‐10  are  very  good   §   Scores  of  4-­‐6  are  low   §   Scores  below  3  are  critical   •   Reflexes   o   Involuntary  movement  in  response  to  particular  stimuli   §   Thrashing:  occurs  when  face  is  covered;  thrashes  around  until  to  get  what   is  covering  their  face  off  of  them   §   Rooting:  newborn  turns  head  toward  anything  that  brushes  against  their   cheek  (supports  breastfeeding)   §   Sucking:  newborns  suck  anything  put  to  their  lips  (supports   breastfeeding)   §   Grasping:  grasps  anything  that  strokes  their  palm   §   Stepping:  will  step  when  placed  upright  with  their  feet  on  a  solid  surface   •   Birthweight  Consequences   o   Most  newborn  deaths  and  illnesses  are  in  low  birthweight  babies   o   LBW  is  associated  with  respiratory  distress  at  birth  and  breathing  difficulty   (underdeveloped  lungs)   o   VLBW     o   Low  Birthweight  (LBW)   §   Less  than  5.5  pounds  at  birth   o   Very  Low  Birthweight  (VLBW)   §   Under  3  lbs,  5  oz  at  birth   o   Extremely  Low  Birthweight  (ELBW)   §   Under  2  lbs,  3  oz  at  birth   •   Preterm:  delivery  before  37  weeks       •   LBW  Risk  Factors   o   Social  Risk  Factors  (poverty,  single  parent,  stress)  and  Personal  Risk  Factors   (smoking,  alcohol  usage,  poor  nutrition,  age)   ClickerQ:  Which  of  the  following  is  used  to  define  preterm  birth?  Birth  that  occurs  before  37   weeks   •   Preterm  and  Small  for  Gestational  Age   o   Preterm   §   delivery  before  37  weeks   §   associated  with  LBW   o   Small  for  gestational  age  (SGA)  –  much  worse  than  low  birthweight   §   Some  are  actually  full  term,  they  just     §   Birthweight  is  lower  than  expected   §   Impairment  throughout  prenatal  development     §   More  likely  to  die  before  first  birthday,  to  get  infections  and  show   evidence  of  brain  damage   §   Maternal  or  fetal  illness,  maternal  drug  use  and  maternal  malnutrition   can  cause  SGA   o   Large  for  Gestational  Age   §   Over  9lbs,  15oz   §   Often  related  to  gestational  diabetes,  obesity   §   Big,  tall  parents  tend  to  bear  big  babies   §   C-­‐section  may  be  necessary  (can  complicate  birth)     •   Sleeping   o   Newborns  sleep  on  average  15  to  17  hours  a  day   §   50%  of  sleep  is  spent  in  REM  sleep  (resembles  activity  while  awake,  vital   for  growth  of  central  nervous  system)   o   Newborns  sleep  for  1-­‐3  hours  at  a  time   §   Need  to  feed  every  3  hours  (nursing  session  can  take  an  hour)   •   Breastfeeding   o   Breast  milk  is  the  optimal  nourishment  for  babies   §   Breastfed  babies  gain  weight  faster   §   Less  chance  of  obesity  later   §   Fewer  illnesses  and  allergies   §   Decreased  risk  of  SIDS  (Sudden  Infant  Death  Syndrome)     §   Boost  in  IQ   §   Nipples  can  become  cracked  and  infected  from  breastfeeding  though   §   There  are  so  many  benefits  to  breastfeeding,  why  can’t  a  mother   breastfeed  in  public?   •   Covering  the  baby  will  evoke  the  thrashing  that  was  mentioned   earlier   •   Let  mothers  be!   2   §   Breastfeeding  helps  uterus  shrink  back  to  normal  size  after  birth   §   Placenta  is  attached  to  uterus;  breastfeeding  stops  the  bleeding  and   contracts  uterus  back  to  normal  size   §   Helps  mother  lose  baby  weight   §   Promotes  bond  between  mother  and  baby   •   Cuddling  and  Crying   o   Newborns  want  love  and  affection!!  They  want  to  be  held  and  this  is  not   something  that  will  “spoil”  them   §   Letting  a  baby  “cry  it  out”  is  not  a  healthy  solution     §   Babies  need  to  have  control  over  their  environment  and  need  to  know   that  they  can  trust  their  caregivers     o   Newborns  cry  when:   §   They  are  hungry     §   They  need  to  be  changed   §   They  need  comfort   §   They  need  stimulation     §   They  are  too  hot  or  cold   §   They  are  in  pain  or  are  ill  (Colic  –  persistent  crying  which  is  often  due  to  a   dairy  sensitive)   Before  an  infant  cries,  they  give  subtle  signs  that  some  parents  are  privy  to  and  they  have  rarely   crying  babies.     ClickerQ:  Which  of  the  following  is  NOT  a  benefit  of  breastfeeding?     -   It  lowers  breast  and  ovarian  cancer  rates  in  the  mothers   -   Increases  IQ  in  the  children   -   Decreases  allergies  in  the  children   -   Decreases  the  risk  of  sudden  infant  death  syndrome  (SIDS)   ALL  OF  THE  ABOVE!     3  


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