HIST150 The Enlightenment
HIST150 The Enlightenment History 150
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Foster on Wednesday February 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Malone in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/16
HIST 150 The Enlightenment Motto of The Enlightenment • “Dare to know” – Immanuel Kant • Individuals need to think for themselves Objectives • 1. Critically evaluate social institutions, ideas, and practices o Is it reasonable? (#reason) § Ex. Caesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishments • 2. Uncover the natural laws operating in society. o “Science of man” – aka the social sciences § Ex. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations Themes • Action, change…PROGRESS • Considered radical and new • Achieve progress through the use of REASON Caesare Beccaria – Italian thinker • 1. He argued all people should be treated equally before the law o Matter of execution • 2. He argued that penal systems should be reformed so that the punishment fits the crime • 3. Opposed the use of torture as a means of obtaining evidence in criminal cases o NOT REASONABLE • 4. Opposed the death penalty on several grounds o Objected the barbarity of executions Key Point of Opposition • It is not absurd that the law, which detest and punish homicide, should in order to prevent murder, publically commit murder themselves? • By around 1800, most European countries abolished torture and reserved the death penalty for he only gravest crimes • Advocating reform, change happens on behalf of some of hi s reforms Adam Smith – professor • Uncovered the new concept of the natural laws that operate in the economy • The economy is governed by the natural law of supply and demand (TQ) • In order to maximize a nation’s wealth, the laws should allow to be operated w/o government interference • Let nature take its course. Gov. should pursue the policy of “laissez -faire” • Individuals should be free to pursue their own economic self -interest **** “The Individual” • Natural rights and freedoms • Economic freedom John Locke - Two Treatises of Government (1690) • All men are born free and equal • The natural right of life, liberty, and property • Men form governments to protect the natural rights of man • A gov. that failed to protect those rights or rules arbitrarily or absolutelya tyrannical gov. • Can overthrow and start a new gov. Thomas Jefferson “We hold these truths to be self evident that all men are created equal” (and when I meet Thomas Jefferson I’m a compelling to put women in the sequel. WORK (David Diggs (left) as Thomas Jefferson and Lin Manuel Miranda (right) as Alexander Hamilton) Voltaire • Jean Calas – French protestant who was executed. Voltaire was enraged • Toleration • “Individuals should have the freedom to practice their religion w/o interference of others” Spreading Enlightenment Ideas th • Mid-18 c. Salon in Paris owned by Madame Geoffrin • Coffeehouse (first one appeared in Venice in 1640) Print Culture • The Encyclopedia • (TQ) To compile and spread all of the scientific and technological knowledge of the day • ****To compile and spread Enlightenment ideas in order to “change the general way of thinking.” • 1757 the publishing of it was deemed “dangerous” • He puts an innocuous statement at the beginning and end and hides the controversial point within the body so t hat it’s skimmed and not noticed by editors and publishers • Who read this? Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin
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