BIOL 1040, 2/16-2/18 notes
BIOL 1040, 2/16-2/18 notes BIOL 1040
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Stewart on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 39: The Respiratory System • In humans and other animals w/ lungs, three phases: 1. Breathing 2. Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide 3. Exchange of gases w/ tissues • Respiratory surfaces must be moist and thin to facilitate diffusion; single-layer epithelial cells • Respiratory system has a very close relationship with the circulatory system Lecture given 2/16/16 Mechanisms of Gas Exchange 1. Skin – in earthworms; there has to be a relationship with the circulatory system, like blood vessels (capillaries) that work with gas exchange; highly vascularized (Most animals have specialized body parts that promote gas exchange:) 2. Gills – highly vascularized respiratory surface, in most aquatic animals; large surface area-to-volume ratio in form of lamella filaments. Gas exchange in fish enhanced by ventilation (pumping water across the gills) and countercurrent exchange (flow of blood in the opposite direction of the flow of water). Gills very efficient collect 80% of oxygen from water – humans only collect 25% from air. 3. Tracheal systems – in insects/arthropods, provides direct exchange between air and body cells – no relationship with circulatory system. Membrane-covered holes on the side of the insect, called spiracles allow O2 into the body. Use tiny branching tubes, tracheae, to reduce water loss and to deliver air directly to cells. Small insects’ cellular respiration supported just by O2 from tracheae; larger insects ventilate tracheal systems w/ movements that compress and expand the air tubes (alternating contraction/relaxation of flight muscles pumps air through tracheal system). *Must know structure of human respiratory system 4. Lungs – in terrestrial vertebrates, diaphragm separates thoracic and abdominal cavity; air filtered through nostrils, which filter, warm, and humidify it. Bronchioles end in alveoli, which are highly vascularized lobe structures – where gas exchange occurs; O2 diffuses into blood, CO2 diffuses out of blood. • Inhalation - negative pressure breathing; rib cage expands, diaphragm moves down, pressure in lung decreases, and air drawn into respiratory tract. • Exhalation – rib cage contracts, diaphragm moves upward, pressure around lungs increases, and air forced out of respiratory tract (not all air forced out). Breathing centers in brain respond to CO2 levels; drop in blood pH increases rate/depth of breathing Transport of Gases in Humans • Heart pumps blood to two regions: right side – pumps oxygen-poor blood to lungs; left side – pumps oxygen-rich blood to body tissues • In lungs, blood gains O2 and loses CO2; in body tissues, blood loses O2 and gains CO2 Respiratory pigments – can be red (iron) or blue (copper) Hemoglobin – Iron molecules, made of 4 polypeptides and contains 4 heme groups; transports O2 and CO2 and buffers blood • CO2 is transported by red blood cells and occasionally hemoglobin; the rest reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) Chapter 40: The Circulatory System • Cells must receive nutrients, exchange gases, and remove wastes; large/complex animals cannot rely on diffusion for this, so they use their circulatory system Open circulatory system – found in arthropods and mollusks; characterized by tubular heart and open-ended vessels – blood directly bathes the cells Closed circulatory system – found in vertebrates, earthworms, and cephalopods; characterized by a heart and vessels that confine blood, distinct from interstitial fluid • Cardiovascular system of vertebrates consists of arteries, veins, and capillaries Lecture given 2/18/16 Heart Structure • Heart consists of multiple chambers • Atrium is the receiving pump, and the ventricle pumps blood from the heart to the rest of the body; atrium is thin and ventricle is thick • Fish have 2-chambered hearts, gases exchange at the tissue level in the gills; one single circuit • Land vertebrates have 2 circulations; pulmonary (heart to the lungs) and systemic (heart to the rest of the body) • Amphibians and reptiles have 3-chambered heart, consists of 2 atria and 1 ventricle; separates oxygen-low blood from oxygen-rich blood • Human red blood cells enucleated to allow for more hemoglobin molecules to attach which results in more O2 • Mammal, birds, crocodiles have 4-chambered heart, consists of 2 ventricles and 2 atria; oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood never mix • Left ventricle most muscled part of the heart, has to pump blood to most of the body Structure and Function of Blood • Consists of several types of cells that float in plasma, a substance made of 90% water and other various substances • 2 classes of cells in plasma: red blood cells (erythrocytes) which transport oxygen bound to hemoglobin and white blood cells (leukocytes) which function in and out of the circulatory system; can fight infections/cancer • Blood also contains platelets, which are fragments of cells that allow blood to clot • Blood cells all come from common ancestor; formed in bone marrow (can mature in other parts of the body) • Leukemia is a disease that occurs if there are too many or not enough blood cells being produced
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