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Chemistry 100 Chapter 4 Notes

by: Heidi Archer

Chemistry 100 Chapter 4 Notes CHEM 100 002

Marketplace > Indiana State University > Chemistry > CHEM 100 002 > Chemistry 100 Chapter 4 Notes
Heidi Archer
GPA 3.7

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Notes Cover chapter 4 including examples
Chemistry and Society
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Archer on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 100 002 at Indiana State University taught by Jeeewandara in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Chemistry and Society in Chemistry at Indiana State University.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 4 Chemistry Notes Molecular Changes  Molecules determine the behavior of matter o Human Body o Cooking  o Cars  In all of science history, and exception to this rule has not been found Chemical Compounds and chemical formulas      H2O o 2hydrogen atoms bounded to 1 oxygen atom Chemical formulas  Represent a compound with chemical formulas  Indicate the elements present in a compound and the relative number of atoms of each  If we change the subscripts in a chemical formula, we no longer represent the same  compound o H O 2s water . . . H 2 2  hydrogen peroxide Concept Check  Determine the number of each type of atom in glucose, which has the molecular formula  C H O 6 12 6 o Carbon atoms=6   Hydrogen atoms=12    Oxygen Atoms=6  Determine the number of each type of atom in Ca(NO ) 3 2 o When a group of atoms is placed in parentheses with a subscript outside the  parenthesis, that subscript applies to the entire group o CaN O 2 6  Determine the number of each type of atom in Pb(C H 2 3 2 2 o Pb=2 C=4 H=6 O=4 Ionic and Molecular Compounds  Elements with unstable electron configurations form compounds with other elements to  gain stability  Atoms combine each other or bonded together to form compounds  Bonding between two atoms involves interaction of electrons  This can be accomplished by two ways o Transferring electrons (ionic compounds) o Sharing electrons (molecular compounds) Ionic Compounds  Contain a metal and one or more nonmetals  Metals and nonmetals are a good chemical match o Metals lose electrons o Nonmetals gain electrons  The opposite charges attraction is called an “ionic bond”  The result is an ionic bond  Subscripts represent the ratio of elements in the crystal lattice of the compound Sodium Chloride  Soluble ionic compounds dissociate in water to form electrolyte solutions   Such solutions conduct electricity Molecular compounds  Covalent bonds  o Bonds form between atoms by sharing electrons o Resulting collection of atoms is called a molecule  A molecule is always neutral  Molecules are the particles that constitute a covalent compound/molecular compound  Subscripts represent the actual numbers of each kind of atom in the molecule o Molecular formula : a chemical formula that specifies the actual number of each  kind of atom in the molecule, not just the simple ratio  Molecules can be very small or very large and very complex, such as in protein  molecules  Concept Check 4.2 Solution  Compounds formed between a metal and at least one nonmetal are ionic.  Compounds  formed between nonmetals are molecular. a) NaBr:  ionic Na (metal) and Br (nonmetal) a) SO :  molecular 2 S and O (nonmetals) a) MgF 2 Mg (metal) and F (nonmetal) a) CH 4 C and H (nonmetals) Naming Compounds     Ionic o Name begins with the cation (metal) o Followed by the base name of the anion (non­metal) + ide o Names for ionic compounds do not contain prefixes to indicate the number of atoms Naming Compounds: Anions and Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic ions are ions that are composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded that  behave as a single ionic unit Concept Check   Mg(OH) 2 o  Na2SO 4 o  Li2CO 3 o  Ca3(PO 4 2 o Naming Molecular Compounds The more metallic and element is listed first and is followed by the less metallic element Prefixes are used to show the number of atoms of the element that are present The mono­ prefix is not used on the first element Formula Mass  Formula mass of a compound is analogous to the atomic mass of an element   It is computed by summing the atomic masses of all the atoms in its formula Molar Mass  The mass in grams of 1 mole of a compound  The formula mass of a compound in amu is numerically equivalent to its molar mass in  grams per mol (g/mol)


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