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Week 1 Notes

by: Kaylee Viets

Week 1 Notes BISC104

Kaylee Viets
GPA 3.8
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About this Document

These notes cover Chapters 1, 2, and 3.
Intro to Biology
Class Notes




Popular in Intro to Biology

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaylee Viets on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC104 at University of Delaware taught by PatriciaWalsh in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
BIOLOGY – Class Notes Experimenting with chocolate… Hypothesis: possible explanations/proposal  Ex. Chocolate with 70% cacao has greater health benefits than that with 30%.  If true, then if I consume chocolate with a higher percentage of cacao, I will be more healthy (lower blood pressure) Design an experiment:  Large sample size yields more accurate results  Obtain a base line blood pressure  Three groups – eat three pieces a day for a month o Control – no chocolate o 70% group o 30% group  Test Process of Science – Chapter 1 Biology: the study of life  How do we learn about biology? o Observing o Asking questions o Proposing ideas o Testing o Discarding/modifying those ideas that fail “Discovery Science” – a descriptive science  Based on observations and measurements Experimentation: attempts to explain observations  Based on scientific method Hypothesis: proposed explanation (testable and falsifiable)  Make an observation  Come up with a question  Think about possible explanations (hypothesis) Barry Marshall and Robin Warren – What causes ulcers?  Tested hypothesis: bacteria cause ulcers.  Bacterial infection – believed to cause more than 90% of duodenal ulcers and up to 80% of gastric ulcers (falls under more broad germ theory)  Marshall and Warren awarded Nobel Prize Observe  Question  Hypothesize Testing  General  Specific  Predictions (if…then…)  Test and collect data  Tests support or falsify hypothesis, but do NOT prove it o Falsify  go back and amend hypothesis o Support  consider alternative hypotheses BIOLOGY – Class Notes Experimental Design  Data  Variable o Independent o Dependent  Control  Subject pool o Random assignment o Identical treatments except for placebos  Designing a controlled experiment: o Avoid bias  Blind experiment – subject is unaware  Double blind – both subject and experimenter are unaware  When humans aren’t an option: examine correlation between variables o Using correlation to test hypotheses:  Question: Does stress make us more susceptible to the common cold?  Hypothesis: Stress increases susceptibility to the common cold.  Test  Results o Correlation does not equal causation o Try to eliminate alternative hypotheses  Statistical tests – evaluate and compare data o Examine variability o Extend results to entire population o Sampling error: difference between sample and population o Standard error of the mean: measure of variability in sample o Statistically significant: an observed difference is probably not due to sampling error (chance)  Vs. practically significant o Standard error – confidence intervals: the range of values from a sample that has a 95% probability of containing the true population of containing the true population mean (average) o Sampling error – the effect of chance on experimental data o Confidence interval (standard error of mean) Evaluating Scientific Information  Primary sources: i.e. professional journal o Peer review  Secondary sources: books, news reports, the Internet, advertisements  Anecdotes Water, Biochemistry and Cells – Chapter 2 Characteristics of life:  Cells – basic unit of life BIOLOGY – Class Notes o Common set of biological molecules (protein, lipids, DNA, etc.)  Building blocks of cells  Growth  Movement  Metabolism  Reproduction (genetics)  Homeostasis  Evolution – population  Response to environment Water is essential  Elements: simplest form of matter (can’t be broken down)  Atoms: smallest unit of element with all properties o Composed of sub atomic particles  Protons  Neutrons  Electrons  Atomic structure: oxygen o 8 neutrons, 8 protons, 8 electrons  2 electrons is first shell, 6 in second (space for two more)  Molecule: 2 or more atoms held together by a bond o Water molecule – two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom (covalent bonds between hydrogen and oxygen – share electrons) o Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, so shared electrons spend more time around the O atom, giving it a slightly negative charge and the hydrogen atoms a slightly positive charge  This is a polar covalent bond  The properties of water: o Polar: electrons drawn toward O atom because it’s more electronegative  Whenever there’s electronegativity involved in a covalent bond, the molecule will be polar o Are there nonpolar (equal sharing) molecules?  O-O, H-H, C-C, C-H  Methane (CH4)  Electrons shared equally  No partial charges  Carbon-Hydrogen bond is nonpolar Chemistry and Water  Hydrogen bonding: weak attraction between molecules o Slightly negative oxygen attracted to slightly positive hydrogen The properties of water:  Good solvent (dissolver) o Solute: what’s getting dissolved o Solution: what is created  Dissolves salts and hydrophilic (water-loving) molecules  Hydrophobic (water-avoidant) molecules: fats and oils  Facilitates reactions (solutes can react) BIOLOGY – Class Notes o These reactions referred to as metabolism  Cohesion: stick together when in great numbers Chemistry for Biology  Importance of carbon: o Bonding versatility – can bond to 4 different atoms at once o 2-8-8 electrons o Carbon-containing molecules  Chemical bonds o Covalent bonds: sharing  Importance of carbon  Bonding versatility  Atomic number: 6 o Hydrogen bonds: weak, easy to break, easy to reform  Important in hydrogen o Ionic bonds: opposite charges attract  Almost as strong as covalent, but can be broken The pH scale: measure of H+ concentration  Relative amounts of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-)  Basic: >7  Acidic: <7  Neutral: 7  Log scale – tenfold between each point on the scale Organic Chemistry  Importance of carbon o Bonding versatility  Can bond to 4 different atoms at once  Biological macromolecules (large organic molecules) o Carbon-containing o Found in living organisms:  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Lipids  Nucleic acids o Made of monomer subunits (monosaccharide – one sugar); can be strung together (to form disaccharides, polysaccharides - polymer)  Ex. glucose (monomer)  Starch (poly)  Glycogen (poly)  Carbohydrates: hydrate of carbon o Molecules of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen o Roles in the cell:  Energy source  Structure  Cellulose (plant cell walls)  Chitin (exoskeleton of insects) BIOLOGY – Class Notes  Proteins: o Molecules of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen o Roles in the cell:  Enzymes  Hormones (insulin)  Transport (hemoglobin)  Muscle protein  Receptor protein o Amino group (N and H) + carboxyl group (C, O, OH) + R group o 20 amino acids (differ in their R group)  Connected by peptide bonds (covalent)  Monomers o Polypeptide – string of amino acids o Protein – functional unit (some made up of one polypeptide, some made up of more) o Structure determines how well it works  Can be disrupted by things such as pH, salt concentration, temperature  A reason we maintain homeostasis  Lipids: o Molecules of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen o Hydrophobic o Roles in cell:  Insulate, cushion  Stores energy and excess nutrients o Fat (glycerol + 3 fatty acid tails of C and H), cholesterol (steroid; found in animal cell membranes – not plants), phospholipid (phosphate head – charged + 2 hydrocarbon fatty acid tails; found in bilayer within membrane)  Nucleic acids: o Molecules of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus o Monomer: nucleotide  Each nucleotide composed of a phosphate, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base  Serve as building blocks o (DNA – double helix structure; guanine, cytosine, adenine, thymine)  Hydrogen bonds between strands  Sugar and phosphate on side o Polymer: chain of nucleotides (polynucleotide – DNA, RNA) = nucleic acid o Roles in cell:  DNA: contains genetic information  RNA: involved in gene expression and protein synthesis o Structure of DNA: twisted ladder structure (double helix)  “Backbones” made of sugars and phosphates  “Rungs” made of nitrogen bases  Complementary base pairing (A-T, G-C) o Purine with a pyrimidine  Uniform width BIOLOGY – Class Notes  Hydrogen bonds between nucleotides connect the two strands (easy to break and reform)  Anti-parallel strands – parallel, but one is essentially upside down compared to the other Unity in Diversity Organisms share many similarities:  Same basic biochemistry (same types of macromolecules)  Cells o Phospholipid bilayer – plasma membrane o Organelles in all eukaryotes Cells: fundamental unit of life  Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells o Similar macromolecules and cell structures o Ribosomes o Cell membrane o Nucleus/nucleoid region Prokaryote Eukaryote Much larger cells Red cells Cell Membrane- membrane Have a nucleoid bound region, Ribosomes organelles ribosomes, cell wall, and cell DNA White cells membrane Have nucleus, cell membrane, and organelles More complex All organisms share a common ancestor from 4 billion years ago  Descent with modification Nutrients, Cells, and Membrane Transport – Chapter 3 Why do we eat?  Energy  Build cells  Growth, repair  Homeostasis BIOLOGY – Class Notes Macronutrients: we need to consume them in large quantities  Water o Necessary for survival – can only last a few days without drinking water  Transport nutrients and waste  Body temp o Dangers of dehydration:  Increase in toxins  Decrease in temperature control  Kidney failure  Death  Carbohydrates o C, H, O o Important energy source o Simple carbs:  Monosaccharides:  Glucose  Fructose  Disaccharides:  Sucrose  Lactose  Food sources (of these simple carbs): fruit, juice, milk, honey o Complex carbs (branching chains):  Polysaccharides:  Starch  Glycogen  Food sources: fruits, vegetables, grains  Dietary fiber (importance):  Insoluble bulk o Help move things through the system  Soluble fiber o Help lower blood cholesterol  Proteins o C, H, N, O o Polymers of amino acids o Variety of functions  Transport  Structure  Contractile proteins o Food source: meat, nuts, beans o Essential amino acids: we can’t make them – must be in our diet (consume)  Need all of them (8, 9 in infants) o Complete proteins: have all 8 essential amino acids (ex. meat)  Fats o C, H, O o Energy BIOLOGY – Class Notes o Glycerol backbone + fatty acid tails  Essential fatty acids:  Omega 3 and omega 6 – thought to be heart-healthy  Grains, eggs, salmon, flax seeds o Saturated fats – increased risk for heart disease, high blood cholesterol (try to limit in diet)  Saturated with hydrogens  no double bonds  No C = C (double bonds)  Packed more tightly  solid at room temperature  Mostly animal sources (dairy) o Unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats  Double bonds (C = C) – cause fatty acid chains to kink, so they can’t pack together as tightly  liquid at room temp  Mostly plant sources (oils) o Trans fats  Hydrogenation of vegetable oil (some natural sources)  Eliminates some of the double bonds with high pressure hydrogen gas – converts to more solid form (i.e. vegetable oil  margarine)  Longer shelf life, but linked to an increase in cardiovascular issues (heart disease/blood cholesterol)  Avoid: partially hydrogenated vegetable oils Micronutrients: needed in small quantities  Vitamins o Organic (carbon-containing) o Often function as coenzymes (enzyme helpers) o Subject of much research o Sources: fruits, fortified milk  Can make vitamin D (need sun), but others must come from our diet o Types:  Water-soluble – vitamins we don’t metabolize; if we take in more than we need, excess leaves through urination)  Fat-soluble – excess is stored  Minerals o Inorganic (do not contain carbon) o Water-soluble (a bit of a concern with cooking; minerals may leach out of foods into water)  Antioxidants o Protect cells from free radicals (produced from normal life activities)  Destroy or neutralize o Sources: brightly colored fruits/vegetables, cocoa and dark chocolate Processed vs. Whole Foods  Processed – high in sugar, unsaturated fats, low in fiber, may have lost some vitamins and minerals in processing BIOLOGY – Class Notes Back to Cells – Eukaryotic Animal and plant cells  Usually larger  More complex  Cytoplasm o Cytosol o Membrane-bound organelles  Nucleus o Non-membrane bound structures  Plasma membrane: phospholipid bilayer o Hydrophobic o Extracellular fluid on one side, cytoplasm on the other o Proteins o Cholesterol o Provides a semi-permeable barrier (controls what goes in and out of the cell)  Some molecules can cross and some can’t  Cell wall (in plant cells) o Fibers of cellulose o Protects and supports o Porous  Nucleus – contains genetic information; surrounded by nuclear envelope o Nuclear pore (controls what goes in and out of the nucleus)  Ribosomes o Nucleolus o Chromatin: DNA with proteins  Mitochondrion – large, bean-shaped organelles o Outer membrane o Intermembrane space o Inner membrane – highly folded o Matrix o Energy produced – glucose (C6H12O6) in the presence of oxygen is broken down into carbon dioxide, water, and energy  Usable form – ATP o Mitochondrial DNA (only from mother)  Mitochondrial genes – mutations can be the reason for mitochondrial disorders  Chloroplast (plant cells only) o Involved in energy processing – carbon dioxide and water (with light energy) allows plant to make glucose; oxygen is released  6CO2 + 6H2O + E  C6H12O6 + 6O2 o Outer membrane o Inner membrane o Stroma o Granum o Thylakoids  Lysosomes – sacs of strong, digestive enzymes o Membrane BIOLOGY – Class Notes o Digestive enzymes and digestive material o Can be used for food digestion, recycling, protection (break down white blood cells that have engulfed bacteria, for example)  Ribosomes – made in the nucleolus, exported out to the cytoplasm o Protein synthesis  Endoplasmic reticulum o Membrane is continuous with nuclear membrane o Membrane tunnels  Some covered in ribosomes (rough ER – involved in making protein), some are not (smooth ER – involved in making lipids; calcium storage and release in muscles) o Transport vesicles – membrane-bound; move things produced to other parts of cell (can fuse with membrane of the Golgi and transport contents)  Golgi Apparatus o Resembles a stack of pita bread (membrane sacs) o Sorting, modification/repackaging, shipping  Cytoskeleton – protein fibers running through cytoplasm o Microfilaments o Intermediate filaments o Microtubules o Contraction, support, shaping, movement  Centrioles (only in animal cells) o Involved in chromosome movement o Microtubules  Cilia  Flagella (longer, whip-like structures that help a cell move)  Central vacuole (only in plants) o Holds H20, pigments, food, toxins, enzymes o “Holding tank” Think, pair, share. Think of a cell as a city. Pick a cell structure that could serve as… 1. A public library – nucleus 2. The U.S. Postal Service – Golgi 3. A water tower – central vacuole 4. Coal burning power plant – mitochondria 5. Solar power plant – chloroplast 6. Manufacturing plants – nucleolus, ER (ribosomes) 7. Moving company – transport vesicles, centrioles


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