Week 6: Modernization and the Road to World War 1
Week 6: Modernization and the Road to World War 1 HIST 2051-001
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Brogan on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2051-001 at University of Cincinnati taught by James Streckfuss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see American Military History in History at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Streckfuss Amy Brogan February 16&18, 2016 Week 6: Modernization and the Road to WWI Modernization World Power: 1890-1914 o Isolationist: frontiers closed with borders from “sea to shining sea”, Manifest destiny fulfilled o Expansionist: leading industrial nation on the imperialist global scale o Foreign policy based on pragmatism, notoriously short-term, famous for not thinking beyond next election/little bit o Causes of Expansion: Economic: desire for new markets and raw materials Military: desire for naval and coaling stations, also, though not as important, have to re-supply the holds with food for the crew Ideological: desire to bring Christianity, western-style culture, and democracy to other peoples; idea that we were civilizing the world of heathens White-man’s burden: obligation to spread out culture an idea of civilization o Liberal Developmentalism: Emily Rosenberg Belief that other nations could and should replicate America’s own development experience Faith in private free enterprise Support for free or open access for trade and investment Promotion of free flow of information and culture Ours out, not theirs in Growing acceptance of governmental activity to protect private enterprise and stimulate and regulate American participation in international economic and cultural exchange o Hey’s Open Door: doors open to trade out with anyone, less concerned with markets in other countries * Imperialism Righteousness: Josiah Strong (Congregationalist minister): called for the US to create an empire to bring “civilization” to remote parts of the world o The Anglo-Saxon “race” had on obligation to evangelize the world o “White-man’s Burden” to bring liberty and Christianity to the “darker races” Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon History: bedrock of naval literature, still widely read enough for a modern publication of the air force based on this outline, Teddy Roosevelt reads it and steps up construction of steal navy to take over islands in the Pacific. Mahan had a big hand in building the Panama Canal o Every nation that became a great nation did so because they had a great Navy o Influenced Kaiser Wilhelm II (German) to begin competition with Great Britain. Britain responded by expanding the Royal Navy, navy race followed and helped lead up to WWI Anti-imperialist League: said it was hypocritical for Americans to talk about a right of self- government and then take over foreign lands. o William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Grover Cleveland o Doesn’t reflect majority opinion or policy 1887- control of port at Pearl Harbor o 1887 – Americans rebelled against the Queen and Hawaii became the next state Open Door Policy: the traditional policy of imperil powers was to divide the world into spheres of influence, this locked new powers out of opportunities for new markets. To open up opportunities, US Secretary of State John Hay advanced this policy to China. Called for free and equal access to Chines ports and markets for western powers o Boxer Rebellion: brief, bloody (for the Chinese) war led by a group named “Fists of Righteousness Harmony”, Chinese nationalist’s expert in the art of Kung Fu. The boxers wanted to rid China of forever and allow the Chinese to govern themselves History I Three Keys: book with a photograph of a line of decapitated bodies, the heads are lined up elsewhere in the picture Spanish-American War (1898-1901) * o Jose Marti: Cuban poet; exiled from Cuba, led the Cuban independence movement from New York. When the revolution began, he went back and was killed by Spanish troops. Marti became a martyr and created sympathy for Cuba among the Americans. Famous for poem “Guantanamera” o Yellow Journalism: type of news reporing that exaggerates events to get more readers or viewers and thus sell more newspapers William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal), Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) drum up support for the war by misrepresenting what was happening o The De Lome Letter: Written by Spanish foreign minister Dupuy de Lome to a friend in Havana. Calls POTUS William McKinley “weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd,… who tries to leave the door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his pary.” A Cuban spy intercepted it and leaked it to Hearst’s newspaper. American outrage cause Lome to resign. o Jingoism: from the letter, means extreme nationalism, marked by an aggressive foreign policy o Battleship Maine: US gunboat that blew up and sank in the Havana harbor after de Lome’s resignation 260 sailors killed widely publicized the Spanish were at fault, turns out it was a mechanical thing (the boiler blew up), but by the time it was discovered, it was too late and we were at war War declared April 25, 1898 o The Splendid Little War: Only takes nine months from declaration of war to Treaty of Paris Treaty of Paris of 1898: Americans gets Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines Timeline of the War: May 1898: Commodore Dewey defeats Spanish warships in Manila August 1898: United States and Spain agree on a cease-fire December 1898: United states and Spain sign the Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish-American war. Filipinos begins a guerilla resistance to American control February 1899: Senate ratifies Treaty of Paris March 1901: US troops capture Emilio Aguinaldo, the Filipino guerrilla resistance leader April 1902: All Filipino resistance ends Teller Amendment: added to the declaration of war with Spain, it declared that when US defeated Spain, Cubans would be given complete independence, US given practical control over Cuba (until Fidel Castro’s rebellion) Platt Amendment: negotiated by Secretary of State Elihu Root: added to the treaty giving sovereignty to Cuba after the Spanish-American war o Specified: Cuba could not make a treaty with another nation that could weaken its power or allow a foreign power to gain territory in Cuba Ciba had to let the US buy or lease naval stations in Cuba Cuba’s debts had to be kept low to prevent foreign countries from landing troops to enforce payment The US had the right to intervene to protect Cuban independence and keep order. o It showed the US still wanted to control Cuba despite the Teller Amendment. Cuba reluctantly accepted. It was repealed in 1934. Walter Reed and William Gorgas: o Reed, building on the work of Cuban doctor Carlos Finley, proved mosquitoes carried Yellow fever, suggested that draining the swampy land and cutting back the jungle could reduce this; dies in 1902, work continued by William Gorgas (Chief sanitary officer of the army) Was instrumental in making it possible to build the Panama Canal Gorges was made Surgeon General of the Army in 1914, and knighted by King George V of England 1920. o 19 century: main cause of death in civil war is disease and secondary infections, soldier shot in the arm fixed on a dirty floor with doctor tools that hadn’t been cleaned/sterilized between wounded soldiers Dollar Diplomacy: term coined to describe William Howard Taft policy: use banks to prop up foreign economy, where “Banana republic” comes from, Latin America came out on the short hand as the investors and companies become the powers (they make the laws) o Banana Wars: (1898-1934) informal term for minor intervention in Latin America. Includes military presence in Cuba, Panama (Panama Canal Zone), Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Nicaragua. US marine corps specialized in long-term military occupation of these countries, primarily to safeguard customs revenues (cause of local wars). World War I (1914-1916) December 1914 – Europe comes to war that has been building. Under Kaiser Wilhelm I, Otto von Bismarck (Chancellor of Germany, The Iron Chancellor) brilliant diplomat, credited for keeping the peace in these years, keeps the war from happening earlier. Wilhelm I dies and II comes to power and fires Bismarck. Takes the policy and negotiating upon himself. Shifting alliances during this period. Germany anticipates being engaged on both fronts (French and Russian) so they aimed at gaining own system of alliances fi this does happen so they have help, try to stay friend with the Russians, but doesn’t last forever. Germans with Austrian-Hungarians and Italians (Italians share border with Hungarians and wants some of the land.) The Balkans: land mass between Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire (Hungary) all of concern for borders on the black sea, Black Sea from the Mediterranean are the Straits of the Dardanelles. Final straw is 1914 strong independence in Serbia, The Austrian-Hungarian heir Franz Ferdinand and wife Sophie are assassinated by Black Hand in Sarajevo on second try (missed the car bomb, but shot on the other side of the ally). If Serbia agrees to demands from heir-less AH, they will have surrendered their country and will be swallowed by Austrian-Hungary. They say no. Germany allied with AH. Serbia aligned with Russians. War gets going quickly because of alliances. Major Teaching Points: o What was the Strategic Situation in Europe 1914? o What were the European’s Expectations of “the next great war in Europe” before 1914: everyone convinced that the war is going to be short and we will win o War plans: German war plans based on idea that they are going to fight both French and Russians, they expect that Russians will be slower to mobilize. They will defeat the French first and then turn it back to Russia and fight them. (Basic thesis of von Schlieffen plan, dies in 1905, plan trusted to Helmet von Mulke (second one, the original was the one who put his own money into railroads, if he had been alive they might have won) this is the nephew and not nearly as gifted o Von Schlieffen plan “fixed” but doesn’t work o Why did the Trench stalemate develop on the western front? o How did the various militaries try to break the trench stalemate? Why did they fail? Socio-political situation o What was the socio-political situation in Europe in 1914? Post-Industrial Revolution social and economic changes, ethnic and political nationalism, imperialism, militarism o Not for idea of independence movements in Balkan, then war may not have happened o Political map of 1914* Ethnolinguistic map of Europe 1914* Possible for 1919 for fighting for losing side but considering self as winning the war. Drafted into AH army, but flash forward the army is defeated and your people has independence and own country Who Has your back? o Bismarck’s League of the Three Emperors: Germany/Russia/Austria (1873-1884) o Triple alliance: military supplementary agreement Germany/Austria/Italy (1882) o German-Russian Reassurance Treaty – 1887 – Germany rejects Russia’s request to extend the treaty in 1890, shortly after Kaiser Wilhelm sacked Bismarck o Dual Alliance: France and Russia (1892) o Triple Entente: France/Russia/Britain (1907) o Railroad lines 1914 made certain alliances necessary (for moving troops and supplies through other countries and/or to opposite fronts) What were the assumptions about the nature of the coming war? o Lack of understanding how new machinery was going to work; fighting with 20 century weapons but with 19 century tactics, old style uniform (France, quickly discovered it’s not what you want to be wearing running towards machine guns) o Tried to use Calvary, present in every army at the start of the war (first month or so), but as the war goes on they fade away and give in to airplanes as the new scouts [Tanks 1916] Armies have spent a lot towards developing airplanes and constructing the air force, Germans slower because et hey spent it on airships/zeppelins Precedent: WWI not the first to use airplanes, small war between Spain and Portugal that used airplanes, but not widespread adoption and several skeptics Ferdinand Fosch: French general 1918 supreme Allies commander, brings in unity of command, beginning of the war claims the airplane is useless. By 1918 his is a true believe and has extensive use of them WWI has as many hire deployed in the war as men, not just Calvary, every officer was entitled to a horse, used to haul artillery and supply wagons The Jean de Bloch Factor o Anticipating total war o Going to be costly in lives and money o This better be a short war Thursday How we must fight in order to win: o “The Dread of losses will always ensure failure, while we can assume with certainty that those troops who are not afraid of losses are bound to maintain an enormous superiority over others who are more sparing of blood.” General Theodore von Bernhardi, German General Staff Member and Military Theorist, 1912 o “… the French Army, returning to traditions, no longer knows any other law than the offensive… All attacks are to be pushed to the extreme… to charge the enemy with the bayonet in order to destroy him… This result can only be obtained at the price of bloody sacrifice. Any other conception out to be rejected as contrary to the very nature of war.” Colonel Loyzeaux de Grandmaison General Assumptions (1914) o War is inevitable o We can win o War will be short o Victory will go to the attacker o Losses will be heavy Mobilization and Logistics: does mobilization really mean war? o Didn’t have too, but it did in this instance. Once the Germans started moving there wasn’t anything that could really stop it. How did the Great Power’s war plans influence the decision for, and early course of, the war? o Everybody was thinking about timing, about when to launch an attack with the greatest success, although condemned for starting the war, it is better than waiting to be attacked. Von Schlieffen plan wasn’t what Schlieffen had planned, Mulke the younger had altered it too much to be truly recognized o Von Schlieffen plan: cut through Belgium and attack France’s flank from inside their own country and take Paris (assumed Belgium stepped aside so they wouldn’t be attacked themselves) French plan: attack Germany head on Assumptions (all wrong) Belgian rail network will be captured largely intact Belgians will put up only a token of resistance The Russians will be unable to attack until their mobilization is complete The right wing will be able to sustain high speed of advance The French will be unable to switch forces from Alsace-Lorraine to counter the right wing The British don’t really matter Why did the von Schlieffen plan fail? o Headquarters is at the back of the army March of 35h Fusiliers of von Kluck’s First Army (17 Aug-12 Sept 1914) o Total of 403 miles, 27 days, 11 of which were battles o Average March: 15. miles 2 Sept. – Germans turned to early because they were running beyond their supply lines, so they don’t take Paris and winds up being stopped at the Marne river o Marne Counter attack – classic war story – Allies stop the German advance Leuit. Colo. Hentsch was aid to von Kluck who was stuck at headquarters. Hentch saw the German forces were about to be enveloped and recommended a withdraw. Communication is a matter of runners because telephone wires weren’t down yet. General Galreny, French General, gets word that Marne possibility is out there, but he was stuck to get his forces from Paris to the Marne. He commandeers the cabs and taxis of Paris and has them drive out the soldier. Paid the taxi services after the war. o Lines stabilize: Both sides keep trying to outflank each other. Neither side does successfully, till they reach he sea (“Race to the Sea”) Germans pick up several port cities that become critical as the U-boat advance begins. Also, San-Maher becomes thorn in side of the allies because it cuts the railroad line between Paris and Nancy. Why stalemate in 1914? o Exhaustion of armies o Exhaustion of ammunition Shell scandal (no ammunition), bars/pubs closed at 11 o’clock because the workers were showing up to make shells drunk, or not at all. Pub ban in effect till a few years ago o Density of forces o Lethality of weapons o Limited heavy artillery (industrial war, who can build more and the longest?) o No assailable flanks o All war plans failed A Bit of Perspective o French Battle deaths in 1 110 days – 454,000 (more than all of ours in WWI) o Battle of the Somme – July 1 1916 – British 60,000 casualties on the first day A few thousand more than the entirety of the Vietnam war o Casualties of 1914 France: 950,000 Britain: 64,000 Germany (in the West): 700,000, Germany (East): 200,000 29% of Germany’s total WWI casualties occurred on August and September of 1914 Austria-Hungary: 750,000 Russia: 1,000,000 (+) Why not just stop? o Politically impossible o Spontaneous outburst of peace on Christmas day – both ides meet out in no-mans-land and exchange gifts and play soccer together. Goes bac the next day The Trenches o Front line trenches of each side divided by no-man’s-land and barbed wire o French trenches end up having concrete barriers and electric light to stay for the long haul. This system runs through France and Belgium all the way through Bordon. In 1917/18 the world biggest city was the trenches on the western front. Trenches given st street names. 1 challenge always getting across no-mans-land (sometimes wide, sometimes narrow enough to hear conversations), then barbed wire, then the first line of trenches with a machine gun post every few yards. More casualties suffered by artillery fire than any other force. Next breaking through each layer of trenches o Last effort is to break out of the trench line into open territory. Doesn’t happen until the end of the war Technological development at the beginning of the war o Shoot: machine gun, artillery pieces o Move: horse carts, trucks, ships, airplanes o Communicate: Trenches hardwired between layers and works until no-man-land. Then runners are sent, or carrier pigeons, signal flags Contact patrol – airplane sent out to find how far the advance has gone. Advancing infantries carried white bedclothes to communicate with the plane’s cloxonhorn to layout the panels to say where the front line is. Or Backpacks with mirrors. Problems: infantry didn’t trust thee airplane: either hide, or shoot at it because assumed it was the enemy. Planes then had to fly low enough to distinguish uniform colors. Frequently unsuccessful Carrier pigeons, telephone, telephone exchange (system of wires) o Fire power as doctrine: heavy guns 1915-1916 Shells had to be hoisted with cranes German artillery shells could travel 75 miles, and high as airplanes o How do you fight through this? Trenches outlined in white because French soil is chalky Aftermath of artillery attack, the ground is pox-marked with shell holes Trenches built in zig-zag: invaded trenches can’t be mowed down by enemy fire, straight lines are weak structurally “High Tech” as doctrine: innovations 1914-1917 o Fighter planes o Machine guns Lewis gun – lighter one of the war Flamethrowers Chemical weapons Gas Attacks at Ypres (ee-per), 22 April 1915 o Cloth manufacturing center o Old medieval city, gated, ground zero for British for most of the war o British referred the places as “Wipers” British still maintain a fort in Ypres. The medieval gate was rebuilt as a war memorial. “The Evening Memorial” performed every night, rain or shine. o Both sides made gas warfare. Everyone had gasmasks, but not used as much as they should because they were hot and smelled funny because of the carbon The Tank: o Battle of Flers-Courselette, 15 September 1916 From the mud, through the blood, to the green fields beyond 49 tans on hand 11 Sept., 17 break down going to the front, 32 reach attack start point 15 September Of these: 9 break down during attack, 5 ditched in trenches/shell-holes, 10 knocked out by enemy fire 8 tanks operational at the end of the day o Too Few – too soon? Cambral 375 fighting tanks star the battle: 65 lost to direct hits, 71 lost to mechanical failure, 43 lost to ditching 179 tanks lost by end of the first day’s fighting o Unlike Gas where both sides use it, Germans don’t take up using the tanks, The British/French/Americans embrace the use of the tanks o Early: slow, walking infantry could outpace it; 5,6, 8 miles an hour, used to advance through no-man-land as a machine gun nest, break down a lot, o Tank name: code name; to confuse the enemy so they wouldn’t know what it was o Tanks move first, can’t see them but they can hear them. Planes fly back and forth looking for the tank, also to cover up the sound for the tanks. (supply movement always done at night so they enemy planes can’t see it) Dawn patrol: flies on both sides to see what has gone on overnight Attrition as a Doctrine: Verdun 1916 – German Army Preparations o 5 German Army – Crown Prince Wilhelm 140,000 assault troops in 1 wave, 1,400 Arty (850 heavy) (French 270 guns, mostly light), 2.5 million artillery shells stockpiled, 145 recon A/C, 21 fighters, 17 balloons, concentrated on 8-mile front Required 38 trains of ammunition per day for the first week of fighting just to feed the artillery o Falkenhayn conceives attack on French point that French soldiers will defend at all costs Verdun. “We are going to bleed France white” – deplete the forces so much they can’t fight back o Really only one major road leading up to Verdun which became the major supply run, became known as “The Sacred Way”. Keeps France going o Balloons for spotting artillery fire. Balloon is tethered, the cable connecting balloon to the ground is hardwired into several artillery stations to check their fire. Advantage to balloon: observer can say on station all day (16-18 hours), balloons have the telephone and communications both ways. Disadvantage: can only see so far, tough time communicating with the planes and their transmitter Changes in the war 1914-1918 o Uniform o German Infantry BN Organization 1917 – same rifle men, but also machine gun men March 1918 – last German attack before the Americans can show up The Great War: 1917-1918 – Years of Decision o Year of Desperation o Key Events: 1917 Feb: Revolution in Russia April: Us Enters the war June-July: Failurerdf Nivelle Offensive leads to French army mutinies July-Dec.: British 3 Ypres offensive is bloody failure Oct: Caporetto Offensive nearly knocks Italy out of the war Nov: Cambrai – first massed tank attacks Nov: Bolshevik coup leads Russia out of the war o Stalemate means changes in command throughout the war trying to get better results o French army pushed into a brick wall, start seeing mutinies because the soldiers won’t fight any more. They will fight to defend their country, but not to fight for no reason in worthless attack. Executions for cowardice (“Fights of Glory” – movie and book) o End of 1917 – Germany defeated Russia and came to a peace agreement, this enables the Germans to pull all their forces out of the eastern front and move them to the western front in 1918. Stormtrooper tactics in the eastern front, highly trained, moved to the offensive on the west to fight before the Americans come in. o American army primarily use to fight Indians between civil war and WWI. Small army, not mechanized in 1917, air service is almost non-existence. Balloon service had been allowed to go out of existence and had to be re-made. Nowhere near the amount of artillery or trained infantry. Needed to draft and train soldiers, and then ship them to Europe (logistical challenge) vs. the U-boats. America’s Role o What do the French and British want the Americans to do? Make a second front where he Germans just left? Fill in where the home army is the weakest? Sep up production of shells and weapons? Send them bodies. Home will teach them how to do everything, just send them Why not? :: would be sending the men to die, too many deaths would lose support of the war. Wilson and Persian wanted a self-standing independent army. Wilson for political reasons: wanted a seat at peace agreements that America could gain from. Persian wanted it in case we had to fight our way out of Europe.
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