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BIO notes 2-18-16

by: Rachel Tersigni

BIO notes 2-18-16 BIO101N

Rachel Tersigni
GPA 3.57

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Notes from in class discussion. REMINDER there was no class Tuesday 2-16-16
Dr. Bailey
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Tersigni on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO101N at Central Michigan University taught by Dr. Bailey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biology in Science at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Bio Notes 2­18­16 EXAM 2 over Ch2­4 Thursday before SB 1. If you were going to build a large macromolecule or polymer it needs to be  strong. What types of chemical bond do you think would work best for building  macromolecules, like cellulose, or chitin, or high energy storage molecule like starch or  cellulose? a. Covalent 1.  When you eat a candy bar you are eating mostly simple sugars. If you eat a  candy bar while watching a movie, how will your body utilize the sugar a. They will be stored as fat and glycogen Types of Carbs ● Monosaccharide ○ simple sugars ● Disaccharides ○ made up of two simple sugars ○ Sucrose­­common table sugar ● Polysaccharides ○ starch, cellulose, glycogen ○ made up of a series of monosaccharides ○ glucose is common basis of these molecules Polysaccharides ● Starch­ reserves food energy, largely in plants ● cellulose­­as cell walls in plants; provides strength and food  energy for certain animals(cows) ● Glycogen­­stored in liver; functions as reserve energy ● Chitin­exoskeleton of insects, certain animal groups Veggies serve as antioxidants, which get rid of free radicals(types of oxygen based molecules  that play havoc with our DNA)­­EAT THE RAINBOW Cholesterol fat on arteries may become inflamed or irritated which makes it easier for the cells  to break. To reduce the risk a diet in high antioxidants is better Cellulose microfibers make up plant primary cell wall and provides structural support to plant  cells and primary source of energy for herbivores(plant eating animals­­cows, rabbits, etc.) Fats(Lipids) ● Part of living systems as ○ form of stored energy(fatty tissue) ○ means of protection and insulation ○ important part of cell membrane structure ○ Waxy covering on plant leaf found in dryer environments Humans have grown to choose fats as an energy source As an energy source... fats contain 9 calories per gram, twice as much as in a carbohydrate or a protein molecule Common fats in human blood serum ● Cholesterol ● Triglycerides ● HIgh levels may relate to diets, especially in saturated fats ● Saturated fats:animal origin ○ solid at room temperature ● Unsaturated or polyunsaturated: ○ plant origin ○ liquid at room temperature High amount of saturated fats in our diet MAY lead to high levels of cholesterol in our blood­­ clogging our arteries Health effects of fat *diet high in saturated fats leads to  ● heart disease, formation of plaque on artery walls ● high blood pressure ● certain cancers(stomach, intestine, colon, breast, prostate) *40% of people walking around who have cardiovascular disease, their first symptom is sudden  death Fat Molecule ● saturated fat ○ c­c­c­c­c­c ○ all single covalent bonds ● unsaturated ○ all double bonds Three types of fatty acid molecule 1. Saturated fat­all single covalent 2. Mono­unsaturated­one double bond 3. Polyunsaturated­many double bonds ● want to eat more mono and poly than saturated Protein Molecules ● Complex organic molecule ● made up of C, H, O, NItrogen Atoms ● Composed of a sequence of amino acids ○ 20 different types, each unique and different ● Enzymes­they speed up chemical reactions, they allow for the reaction to take  place at a lower temperature ● Proteins made up of 1000’s of amino acids ● FOUND IN ○ muscle tissue ○ membrane structure of cell ○ enzymes­­catalyze reactions in living systems­­


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