Abnormal Psychology Week 6 Notes
Abnormal Psychology Week 6 Notes PSYC 3330
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jae Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3330 at Tulane University taught by Constance Patterson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Neurocognitive Disorders 2/18/16 Some things to consider: Traditional view: brain damage meant poor prognosis for recovery and little potential for improved functioning Now we know: some parts of the brain still function when one part is destroyed. Sometimes other parts of the brain make up for the lost parts o Brain cells do regenerate and new connections are formed throughout lifespan o Flint Michigan lead water supply will cause neurocognitive disorders Social/ Political Changes: Rosa's law- the term is no longer mental retardation, but intellectual disability. The definition is: significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.” [34 CFR §300.8(c)(6)] DSM 5 Intellectual developmental disability 1 Deficits in general mental abilities such as reasoning, problem solving, planning, abstract thinking, judgment, and learning. a They are very concrete thinkers b They are capable of learning, they just need more support and repetition. 2 Impairment in adaptive functioning in at least one aspect of daily living a They may need to be taught how to interact with other people. 2 Onset during the developmental period (before age 18) Specifiers: Mild, Moderate, Severe, Profound (may need a lot of support such as group homes) Unspecified Assessment and diagnosis: Part 1: Use a cognitive ability test to determine cognitive disability. o IQ score below 70 indicates a limitation in intellectual functioning. o Part 2: Standardized tests to determine limitations in adaptive behavior, in three skill types: Conceptual skills- language and literacy, money, time, number concepts, self-direction Social skills- interpersonal skills Practical skills ****Previously, the only test was the IQ score, but it did not account for all situations and disadvantaged kids. Causes of Intellectual Disabilities: Cultural- Familial impairments Environmental- abuse, neglect, deprivation Prenatal- exposure to a range of teratogens prenatally Perinatal- difficulties during birth (involved with loss of oxygen during birth) Postnatal- infections, injury, toxins such as lead Statistics: about 90% are mildly impaired, 1-3% of population - Treatment: chronic condition, no cure. Early identification, extensive intervention and support, education. - Prevention: prenatal care, genetic counseling, early intervention programs NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS: Most occur later in life Can be either "major" or "mild" o Criteria for both is ambiguous Profound changes to personality and behavior are common Previously called "organic mental disorders" Paranoia is common One person may have multiple neurocognitive disorders Delirium: Out of touch with reality Little or overly concerned about things happening around them Causes: o AIDS, intoxication, poisons, withdrawal from drugs, infections, head injury, brain trauma Stats: 30% of older adults, many are taking multiple medications that do not pair well o 6X more common among older adults o The elderly may not have the same nutritional status (when they eat and what they eat) o Metabolism is slower, medications linger in the system o Not given clear directions for taking medication Treatment: o antipsychotics to calm the patient o Psychosocial interventions Dementia: development of multiple cognitive deficits manifested by memory impairment and at least one of the following: • Language disturbance (aphasia=loss of language skills), • Impaired ability to carry out motor activities despite intact motor functioning (apraxia = impaired motor function) • Failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory functioning (agnosia = failure to recognize objects; facial agnosia = failure to recognize familiar people’s faces) • Disturbance of executive functioning (attention, planning, organizing, sequencing, abstracting) • (NOTE: hallucinations can occur; paranoia is common) Characteristics of Dementia, Alzheimer’s type: • Multiple cognitive deficits that develop steadily over time • Loss of ability to integrate new information into memory • Forgetting important events • Lose objects • Lose interest in social relationships and people and become isolated • Interest in non-routine activities, and interests narrow • Agitation, depression, and anxious (sometimes combative; worse late in day) • Language problems • Impaired motor functioning • Failure to recognize objects and faces • Difficulty planning, organizing, sequencing or abstracting information Alzheimer's: We don't know what predisposes someone to Alzheimer's Statistics: Abut 50% of dementia cases, About 5 million in the U.S (2010) Rising incidence Some indication of higher incidence with less education and among women Early identification is key! Vascular Dementia: • Progressive brain disorder that includes blocked or damaged blood vessels, restricting blood flow and oxygenation to the brain • One or more strokes can cause multiple sites of brain injury • Impact and loss of skills depend on brain areas affected There is an overlap between vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s - Statistics: o Men are more susceptible partly due to heart problems o Approx. 1.5% among 70-75 year olds o Up to 15% of over 80 year olds - Treatment: o Depends on location of brain damage o Teach compensatory skills o Medications are sometimes helpful o Training to recover lost skills - Prevention: o Healthy life choices while aging o Effectively treating hypertension and heart problems o Social and intellectual activities Repeated head injuries (addressed briefly): - Example: NFL, Muhammad Ali o cumulative problems from multiple concussions
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