Pyschology Chapter 5 Notes
Pyschology Chapter 5 Notes PSYC 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Payton Chance on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
CHAPTER 5: STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS What is consciousness? Consciousness: Subjective understanding of the environment around us and our private internal world, unobservable to outsiders. Highest level of consciousness: involved, solving problems Controlled consciousness: thinking about what you have to do. Take notes, learn examples. Automati consciousness : not thinking about what you have to do. Typing, walking. Subconsciousness Awareness: sleeping, dreaming No awareness: knocked out, pass out, coma Biological Rhythms Circadian rhythms sleep/wake cycle Body temperature Suprachiasmic Nucleus Receives information about light from retina Distributes info to hypothalamus and reticular formation Problems with Biological Clock : Blindness Jet lag Seasonal Affective Disorder people get sad during the winter season because the lack of light. Storms, cloudy weather Resetting the clock? Spend time outside Hormone melatonin Why and How much sleep? amount of sleep needed is a function of person and age Adaptive Evolutionary Function Safety Energy conservation Restorative Function Body rejuvenation and growth Memory consolidation Stages of Sleep As sleep becomes deeper, brain waves take on a slower wave pattern. 5 stages of sleep, 4 of them are non REM and the last stage is REM. Sleep spindles: spikes in the waves in stage 2 of sleeping REM Sleep Sleep that occupies a little over 20% of an adult ’s sleeping time and is characterized by: Babies spend a lot more time in REM sleep because their brains are developing a lot faster. The Rem sleep gives them the consolidation of memory. Rapid Eye Movement Increased and irregular heart rate Increase in blood pressure Increase in breathing rate Erections in males Usually accompanied by dreams Person’s body is typically “paralyzed” Rebound Effect: Spending more time in REM sleep after deprivation. As we sleep more, REM sleep stages becomes longer throughout the night. sleep gets shallower throughout the night. Sleep Disturbances Insomnia : Difficulty falling or staying asleep occurs in 1/4 of Americans Sleep Apnea: Difficulty breathing during sleep Weight and snoring are risk factors Possibly a cause of SIDS (when babies fall asleep and don’t wake up) REM sleep disorder: lack of “paralysis” during REM phase of sleep. Sleepwalking : Common in children 612 yrs. Boys more than girls Occurs in stage 34 sleep Genetics, over tiredness, drug/alcohol use Difficult to wake, no memory of the incident later Typically not dangerous Night Terrors: Extreme nightmares that occur during nonREM (usually stage 4) sleep. Common in kids 38 yrs. Unknown cause Narcolepsy: Uncontrollable sleeping that occurs while the person is awake. Sufferer goes directly to REM sleep Cataplexy, hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations Possible genetic component Cataplexy: lose of muscle tone, weakness Dreams Unconscious wish fulfillment (Freud): dreams represent unconscious wishes and hold symbolic meaning. Latent content: “disguised” meaning of dreams (symbolism behind what you remember) Manifest content: overt story line of dreams (what you actually remember) Are dreams always symbolic? No. Dreams about events around us Cognitive Theory : dreams are subconscious cognitive processing Uses memory, information processing, thinking. Dreams are dramatizations of real life. Activation Synthesis Theory: Random electrical energy stimulates random memories The brain makes sense of memories by building a potentially meaningful story. Nightmares: negative, scary dreams provides a “trial run” for handling emergencies Drugs Psychoactive Drugs: Drugs that influence a person’s emotions, perceptions, and behaviors Tolerance: the need to take more of a drug to achieve the same effect Drugs can result in dependence ( addiction) physical dependence Psychological dependence Why Drugs? Drugs activate the reward system in the limbic area of the brain, producing powerful feelings of pleasure Almost all drugs act on dopamine receptors Strong drive to repeat behavior Activation of limbic system is evolutionarily powerful and overrides frontal lobe control.
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