New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chemistry 121- Feb 15-19

by: Erin Swanson

Chemistry 121- Feb 15-19 CHEM 121

Marketplace > University of North Dakota > Chemistry > CHEM 121 > Chemistry 121 Feb 15 19
Erin Swanson
GPA 3.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the end of chapter 3 and the start of chapter 4. It goes over the ionization radii, how to find the higher ionization energy of elements, electron affinity, octet rule, metal chem...
General chemistry
Shaina Mattingly
Class Notes
Chemistry 121, chapter 3, chapter 4, ionization, Energy, elements, electron affinity, Octet Rule, metals, covalent bonds
25 ?




Popular in General chemistry

Popular in Chemistry

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Swanson on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 121 at University of North Dakota taught by Shaina Mattingly in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 305 views. For similar materials see General chemistry in Chemistry at University of North Dakota.


Reviews for Chemistry 121- Feb 15-19


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/18/16
February 15­19 Chapter 3 Notes (Continued): Atoms and Ionic Bonds: *Removing Valence electrons to form a cation requires the INPUT of energy* Ionization Energy: - Lowest ionization energy for group 1A cations because they have low effective  nuclear charge and large radii - Ionization Energy increases up and to the right of the periodic table Ionization Radii: - Beryllium: [He]2S 2 - Boron: [He]2S 2P 2 1 2 - Magnesium: [Ne]3S - Aluminum: [Ne]3S 3P 2 1 - Easier to remove electrons from p subshell than a full s subshell - Nitrogen: [He]2S 2P 1 3 1 4 - Oxygen: [He]2S 2P - Easier to remove a paired p electron than to remove a p electron from a half full  subshell Higher Ionization Energy: st ­ - 1  ionization energy: +energy  m+ + e o Mg: 1S 2S 2P 3S  Mg : 1S 2S 2P 3S 2 2 6 1 nd + 2 ­ - 2  ionization energy: m  + Energy  m  + +e o Mg : 1S 2S 2P 3S   Mg : 1S 2S 2P2 2 2 6 rd +2 3+ ­ - 3  ionization energy: m  + Energy  m + e o Mg : 1S 2S 2P   Mg : 1S 2S 2P+ 2 2 5  VERY UNLIKELY! Requires too much energy!!!   So, Magnesium has the highest 3  ionization energy Electron Affinity: - Energy released when adding electrons is favorable - Greatest electron affinity for the halogens - Least electron affinity for group 2A, 5A, and Noble Gases - Electron Affinity increases up and to the right on the periodic table Octet Rule: - Main group elements undergo reactions that give them 8 valence electrons (full s and p subshells) – same as noble gases - An element with 8 valence electrons are unlikely to undergo further reactions o EXCEPTIONS:  H, Li, and Be  undergo reactions that give them 2 valence  electrons (same as He) Ionization Energy: - 1A Elements: Lose one electron - 2A Elements: Lose two electrons Electron Affinity: - 6A Elements: Gains two electrons - 7A Elements: Gains one electron - 8A Elements: unlikely to gain/lose electrons  Born­Haber: (Will not be tested on this nor will it be on the homework) Na + Cl  Na  + Cl ­ 2 2 6 1 + 2 2 6 Na: 1S 2S 2P 3S Na : 1S 2S 2P Cl: 1S 2S 2P 3S 3P 2 5 Cl: 1S 2S 2P 3S 3P 2 6 E ior Na = +495.8 kJ/Mol  Unfavorable (requires energy) E EAor Cl = ­348.6 kJ/Mol Favorable (releases energy) Change in Energy = +147.2 kJ/Mol - Ionic compounds are very stable - Requires more steps than previously seen 1) Na(s)  Na(g) 2) ½ Cl (g2  Cl(g) 3) Na(g)  Na (g) + e ­ a. 495.8 kJ/Mol 4) Cl(g) + e  Cl(g) ­ a. ­348.6 kJ/Mol 5) Na (g) + Cl(g)  NaCl(s) a. ­787 kJ/Mol  *Most favorable step LATTIC ENERGY* Lattice Energy: - Reflects the strength of an ionic bond - Energy = to the lattice energy is released when gaseous ions form the compound - Breaking apart an ionic compound requires energy input equivalent to lattice  energy Lattice Energy Depends on: 1) Magnitude (Greater charge, greater Lattice Energy) 2) Size of ion (Greater size, smaller the Lattice Energy) Alkali Metal Chemistry (1A): - Valence shell electron configuration: ns 1 + ­ - M  m  + 1e - 2m(s) + 2H O(l)  2m OH(aq) + H (g) 2 2 2 - 4m(s) + O (g)2 2m O(s) 2 - Loses electrons very readily *strong reduction agents* 2­ o 4Li(s) + O (g) 2 2Li O(s) 2­­­Anion O  is oxide o 2Na(s) + O (g)  Na O (s) ­­­­ Anion O  is peroxide­ 2 2 2 ­ 2 o K(s) + O (g) 2 KO (s) ­­2­ Anion O  is super2xide - M(s)  m (solution) + 1electron(solution) ­­­­ (solvated electrons in liquid  ammonium Alkaline­Earth Metals (2A): 2 - Valence shell electron configuration: ns - M  m  + 2electrons - Be(s) + 2H O(l2  No reaction - Mg(s) + 2H O(l2  Mg(OH) (aq) + H2(g) Slow R2action - Ca(s) + 2H O(l2  Ca(OH) (aq) + 2 (g) Fast 2eaction (also happens with Sr and  Ba) Halogens (7A): - X + 1Electron  X (X usually represents Halogens) - Gains electrons very readily *strong oxidizing agents*  - X 2g) + H (g2  2HX(g) - HX = Hydrogen halide = acide - nX (2) + 2m(s)  mX (s) n - mX  = Metal  Halide n Noble Gases (8A): - Colorless, odorless, (mostly!) nonreactive gases - Ar, Ke, and Xe only react with Fluorine - First Noble Gas compound, Xe [ptF ], made by6Neil Bartlet in 1962 Chapter 4: Chemical Bonds: Ionic Bonds: Transferred electrons between atoms (bound by +/­ attreactions) Covalent Bonds: Nonmetal and nonmetal bond by sharing electrons (bound by shared  electron cloud) Property: NaCl: HCl: Appearance:  White Solid Colorless Gas Type of Bond:  Ionic Covalent Melting Point: 801 C ­115 C Boiling Point:  1465 C ­84.9 C - Solids have low energy  gas phase has the most energy - Balance of attractive and repulsive forces - Nucleus and electron forces participate in bonding Representing Molecules: - Chemical Formula: C H O 2 6 - Structural Formula: - Molecular Model:


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.