Ch. 5 Lecture Notes
Ch. 5 Lecture Notes Psych
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Johnson on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Corey M Teague in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Unit 3 Chapter 5 Past and Present (10/7/13) Video Learning – changes due to past experience Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Reflex Edward L. Thorndike B.F. Skinner Operant condition Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Answers: 1. Learning 2. Conditioning 3. Classical Conditioning 4. Stimulus Generalization 5. Stimulus Discrimination 6. Operant 7. Operant Conditioning 8. Reinforcements 9. Positive 10.Negative 11.Discriminative Stimulus 12.Punishment 13.Punishment 14.Punishment Learning Learning – a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to experience. Example: Drink too much alcohol; get sick; limit future alcohol intake. Music in a horror movie; your body anticipates something happening. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – elicits an unlearned (i.e., naturally occurring, reflexive) response. Unconditioned Response (UCR) – an unlearned (i.e., naturally occurring) response to a stimulus. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – an originally neutral stimulus that, after association with UCS, comes to trigger a conditioned response. Conditioned Response (CR) – the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus. (10/9/13) Formerly neutral stimulus (CS) comes to elicit CR by being paired with UCS that naturally elicits a similar response (UCR) UCS UCR CS + UCS UCR CS CR Classical Conditioning Principles 1. Acquisition – CR usually develops via repeated pairings of the CS with UCS. 2. Extinction – the gradual disappearance of a CR that happens when a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS. 3. Stimulus Generalization – CR is elicited by stimuli similar, but not identical to, original stimulus (the more similar two stimuli are, the more likely a person is to respond to them as if they were the same stimulus) 4. Spontaneous Recovery – temporary return of the conditioned response. 5. Stimulus Discrimination – Process in which we learn to distinguish between similar stimuli and respond appropriately to each one. Operant Conditioning Actions Consequences Basic Assumption: behavior is determined by its consequences. We learn to repeat actions that produce favorable results and avoid actions that produce unpleasant results. Reinforcement – Presentation OR withdrawal of a stimulus contingent upon some behavior which INCREASES future occurrence of a behavior. 1. Positive Reinforcer – any stimulus whose presentation increases the future probability of a behavior. 2. Negative Reinforcer – any negative stimulus whose removal INCREASES the future probability of a behavior. Escape Conditioning – we learn responses that will stop something that is unpleasant. Teaches us to escape. Avoidance Conditioning – we learn to avoid negative stimuli. (Stop sign, Yellow light, beet soup) Primary Reinforcer – things that we need like food, water, clothing, etc. Secondary Reinforcer – things that help us get what we need. (Money, cell phone) Punishment – presentation OR withdrawal of a stimulus contingent upon some behavior which DECREASES future occurrence of a behavior. Principles of Operant Conditioning 1. Timing of Reinforcement – conditioning stronger when reinforce presented immediately after desired behavior occurs. (pay you in two months = less likely to do the job) 2. Size of Reinforcer – conditioning faster when reinforce is large. 3. Schedules of Reinforcement – continuous reinforcement establishes a behavior quickly; behavior better maintained by intermittent reinforcement. Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Ratio – reinforcement based on number of responses. a. Fixed Ratio – Specific # of responses must occur before reinforce is delivered. b. Variable Ratio – Varied # of response must occur before reinforce is delivered. 2. Interval – reinforcement based on first desired/correct response following passage of an interval time. a. Fixed Interval – reinforcement after passage of a fixed, predetermined amount of time. b. Variable Interval – reinforcement after passage of varying amount of time. Processes Involved in Operant Conditioning 1. Shaping – reinforcing behaviors that successively approximate the target/goal behavior. a. Learned Helplessness (p.190) – the tendency to give up to control Social (Observational) Learning – Learning that occurs by observing the behavior of a model. 1. Vicarious Conditioning – person observes or hears about the S-R event occurring with reinforcement to another person. a. Latent Learning – when learning takes place and we don’t even know it, it isn’t a situation where we are trying to learn however we see it and learn from it. b. Prepared Learning – when you need to know it, you observe with a purpose. 2. Observational Learning – person makes S-R association by just watching another person when no reinforcement is involved. Watching violent television tends to increase probability of aggressive behavior in children, BUT this behavior mediated by: 1. Prior aggressive behavior. 2. Cue which reminds child of aggressive behavior they saw modeled. 4 things that are needed if you want observational learning to occur successfully 1. Motivation – want to learn what you are observing 2. Attention – focus on what you are trying to learn 3. Remember – recall what you have observed 4. Transfer – turn what I have observed into behavior Active learning – being active facilitates learning
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