Ch. 6 Lecture notes
Ch. 6 Lecture notes Psych
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Johnson on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Corey M Teague in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 6 Memory Film: 1. Subjective 2. Memory 3. Encoding, Storage, Retrieval 4. Encoding 5. Storage 6. Retrieval 7. Stage Model 8. Three 9. Sensory, Short Term, Long Term 10.Sensory 11.Short Term 12.Long Term 13.Procedural, Semantic, Episodic 14.Procedural 15.Semantic 16.Episodic 17.Retrieval 18.Cued 19.Free 20.Recognition 21.Maintenance 22.Elaborative 23.Time 24.Displacement and Decay 25.Retroactive 26.Proactive Memory 1. Memory – mental capacity to store and later recall or recognize events that were previously experienced. a. Encoding – transforming sensory stimuli into a form that can be placed into memory. i. Acoustic code ii. Visual code iii. Semantic code b. Storage – the maintenance of information over time. c. Retrieval – searching for ad locating information in memory. i. Encoding, Storage& retrieval are interrelated 2. Three Types of memory a. Sensory – Duration is short. Capacity is large. Why do we need it? It allows us to have the initial experience and capture it as information. ½ Second for visual; 2-4 for auditory. i. Sensory Memory – storage system that records information from senses for very brief periods of time. ii. Purpose – Keep record of physical record for brief period of time while we select most important details 1. Iconic – visual sensory memory (usually fades before we can recall all of it) 2. Echoic – auditory sensory memory (usually fades within 2 seconds) iii. Purpose - b. Short term – Holds perceptions for analysis. Up to 30seconds without rehearsal. Limited 5-9 units. i. Short term Memory – Handles material/stimuli that we’re selected for further processing. 1. Storage is limited Can store on average of 7 units of information. 2. Chunking Strategy – grouping individual pieces of information into smaller groups or subsets. c. Long term – relatively permanent storage contains. Unlimited capacity. i. Long Term Memory – A relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. 1. Semantic Code – encoding based on the meaning of items. Pay attention to “gist” of information as opposed to details. 2. Depth of Processing – degree to which info. To be stored in LTM s thought about in a complex or elaborative manner. 3. Elaborative Rehearsal – think about how new material is related to information already stored in LTM. “Conservative?” 4. Mnemonics – special strategies used to associate new information to be remembered with something familiar. 5. Self-Reference Effect – relating information to be remembered to your own personal experiences. 6. Encoding Specificity – recall better if retrieval context Is similar to encoding context. 7. Connectionist Approach – activation of one clue leads to the activation of other, related clues and concepts. ii. Effortful Processing – deliberate attempt to place something into memory iii. Automatic Processing – no direct effort to place something in memory; happens easily or “automatically.” (e.g., 9/11 – vividness aids in memory) Storage in Long Term Memory Types of memories stored in LTM: 1. Implicit (Procedural) Memories – skill memories or memories of actions involved in performing some behavior. 2. Explicit (Semantic) Memories – fact memories or explicit memories of past events recalled with conscious effort. Names, facts, definitions, etc. 3. Episodic Memories – Life events. Retrieval from Long Term Memory 1. Recall – ability to reproduce information verbatim without explicit cues. (e.g.. Write down the names of the seven dwarfs.) 2. Recognition – ability to recognize Inaccuracies in Retrieval from LTM Eyewitness testimony can become distorted. Loftus – subjects watched film of auto accident and then answered questions. “About how fast were the cars going when they contacted each other?” Reasons For Forgetting 1. Encoding Failure – inability to recall specific information because it never got properly encoded for storage in LTM. a. Information Decay – memory fades automatically over time if information isn’t used. b. Interference – when you are trying to remember something and something happens to get you distracted from what you were trying to remember. c. Retrieval Failure – cues necessary for retrieval aren’t available. d. Motivated Forgetting (e.g., Repressed memories).