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Chapter 9 Lecture Notes

by: Brandon Johnson

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes Psych

Brandon Johnson

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Another set of lecture notes, made with love!
General Psychology
Corey M Teague
Class Notes
General Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Johnson on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Corey M Teague in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 9 Human Development Video: 1. Nature 2. Nurture 3. Prenatal 4. Infancy 5. Early childhood 6. Middle Childhood 7. Adolescence 8. Temperament 9. Easy, difficult, slow to warm up 10.Attachment 11.Secure 12.Insecure 13.Cognitive 14.Piage 15.Four 16.Sensorymotor 17.Object permanence 18.Preoperational 19.Symbolic 20.Egocentrism 21.Concrete Operational 22.Conservation 23.Formal Operations Lecture Time :D I. Development – changes in physical, cognitive, and social abilities that occur throughout the lifespan. a. Development – Types i. Nature Vs Nurture – Nature is genetics and Nurture is your caretaker or parents. ii. Continuity Vs Stage - iii. Stability Vs Change – What does or doesn’t change b. Development – Early Prenatal i. Germinal Stage – From conception to implantation and takes about 14 days. ii. Embryonic Stage – Most organs form during this stage iii. Fetal Stage – Organs develop more and the baby gains fat, near the end of the pregnancy. iv. Teratagen – anything that crosses over and causes a negative effect to the unborn child. II. Early Development a. Most rapid growth during prenatal period b. Nutrition is important c. Can affect intelligence of the baby III. Early Development – Issues a. Thalidomide – produced deformed babies b. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – retardation of prenatal/postnatal growth. Central nervous system problems affects facial features. (smaller chins, shorter noses, smaller head [circumference], thinner upper lip, drooping eyelids) IV. Early Development – Smoking a. Born prematurely; low birth weight b. bronchitis/pneumonia c. attention problems/learning problems V. Attachment Theory a. Attachment – close emotional bond of affection between infant and caregiver. i. Took monkeys and separate them from their mothers, put them in an environment. One that fed it one that didn’t. It spent more time with terrycloth mother. Newborn monkeys motivated by contact comfort. Softness/cuddling important when safety is jeopardized. ii. When attachments didn’t form: Isolated monkeys from all social contact. When placed in a cage with normal monkeys, they withdrew into corner and rocked back and forth. iii. Problems continued into adulthood, female parents ignored infants; physically abused infants, killed them when infants sent distress signals. b. Types of attachment i. Secure – using mother as secure base for exploration. Explores surroundings; returns to mother for emotional refueling and then explores more. Mothers are sensitive and affectionate. ii. Anxious-resistant – generally anxious/fearful; demanding of mother’s attention; highly distressed when mother exits room. Angry/rejects mother’s efforts at contact upon her return. Have less responsive mothers; may have experienced neglect. iii. Anxious-Avoidant – show few signs of attachment; seldom cry when mother exits room. Do not seek contact when mother returns to room. Won’t resist contact if mother initiates; less responsive mothers. iv. Disorganized – it is a mixture of avoidant and resistant, may signal child abuse but doesn’t always c. Types of Temperament i. Easy ii. Difficult iii. Slow to warm up d. Parenting styles – Four Styles Differentiated on Two Variables i. Indulgent (Permissive) – High warmth/low control. 1. Child has complete freedom with little discipline. 2. Parent behaves in a non- punitive, accepting, and affirmative manner. 3. Don’t provide guidance/discipline to help kids learn responsibility/ concern for others. 4. Children immature and self-centered. ii. Authoritarian – low warmth/high control. 1. Attempts to shape, control, and evaluate behavior and attitudes of child. 2. Values obedience/respect for authority. 3. Cold, unresponsive and/or rejecting. 4. Children have lower self-esteem, less popular, more academic problems. iii. Authoritative – High warmth/ high control. 1. High expectations, caring, support. 2. Encourages verbal give-and-take; reasoning. 3. Establish clear rules and enforce them consistently. 4. Children have higher self-esteem, fewer behavior problems, high achievers, more considerate. iv. Indifferent – low warmth/low control. 1. Gratifies few of child’s needs. 2. Ignores well-being of child. 3. Does not provide guidance or rules. 4. Children insecurely attached, low achievement motivation, poor peer relationships, impulsive and aggressive. VI. Cognitive Development a. Cognitive Development – Piaget i. Children are “active thinkers” who are continually constructing a more accurate and advanced understanding of their world. ii. Done through adaptation – build mental representations of world through direct interaction with it. b. Cognitive Development – Processes involved in Adaptation 1. Assimilation – new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas. a. Attempting to understand new experiences in light of what we already know. b. First drink – milk- may associate any drink and call it milk. (Daddy) 2. Accommodation – process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change. a. Broadening our understanding of the world. c. Cognitive Development – stages i. Sensorimotor (birth – two years) – understanding world through sensory experiences and physical (motor) interactions with world. 1. Object Permanence – child learns an object exists even though it can’t be seen. a. Can be emotional as well. ii. Preoperational (2 – 7 years) – represent world symbolically through words and mental images. 1. Language development important – helps child label objects. (Tree) 2. Using symbols to represent things engage in make believe (pretend) play. a. Irreversibility – Difficult for children to mentally reverse an action. (e.g., no understanding that adding 2+ 4 and 4 + 2 refer to the same logical operation) b. Centration – focusing on only one aspect of a situation – ignoring other relevant aspects of situation. c. Identity Constancy – realizing that just because an aspect of somebody changes, they are still the same person. (Scary mask) d. Egocentrism – difficulty viewing world from another person’s perspective. (Talking on the phone; look at my new toy. Other person can’t see the toy and they don’t understand that.) iii. Concrete Operational (7 – 12 years) – Can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible (“concrete”) objects and situations. 1. Are judgments about world based on reason or perceptions? 2. Logic starting to take precedence over perceptions. a. Conservation – properties of object stay the same despite changes in appearance. (Beakers: which glass has more) iv. Formal Operational (12 – Adolescence) – Can think hypothetically and abstractly. Don’t require concrete experience upon which to solve hypothetical problems. Think about things in abstract terms. (Glass house, Cats and Dogs, Under the Bridge) VII. Personality Development a. Personality Development – Erikson i. Development does not end at adolescence. ii. Interested in effects of people’s relationships on social/emotional development. iii. Defined stages in terms of “Tasks” that a person must “Master.” b. Personality Development – Stages i. Trust vs. Mistrust (Birth – 1 year) – depend totally on parents. 1. Parents who meet needs of infant, shows love and affection – infant trusts world. ii. Autonomy vs. shame/doubt (1 – 3 years) – ready to separate from parents, assert independence. 1. If they don’t get the ability to express our own will we may become doubtful. May continue into adulthood. 2. Parents who allow some autonomy, but impose some limits promote successful resolution of crisis. iii. Initiative vs. Guilt (3 – 5 years) – curious about world and seeks to initiate activities to discover “what happens” when they engage in those activities. 1. May feel guilt about seeking your own independence. 2. If allowed freedom to explore and initiate activities, child develops sense of purpose and direction/confidence in planning abilities. iv. Industry vs. inferiority (6 – 11 years) – striving to achieve and learn the skills of the culture (school and peer activities). 1. Experiencing pride and encouragement in mastering tasks results in desire to continue achieving. 2. Repeated failure/lack of praise – inferiority. v. Identity vs. Role Confusion (12 – 20 years) – trying on different “roles” to see which ones “fit” best. 1. Incorporating roles that fit best into one’s own unique identity. 2. Unsuccessful resolution involves confusion and uncertainty concerning who one is. vi. Intimacy vs. isolation (20 – 24 years) – commitment to a close relationship. 1. If we are successful we learn how to love, if not we will isolate. 2. Developing healthy bonds with another (i.e., love) 3. Unsuccessful resolution involves loneliness. vii. Generativity vs. Stagnation (25 – 65 years) – concern for establishing and guiding the next generation. 1. Looking outside oneself/concerned about others. 2. Development of caring attitude, being productive and happy. 3. Unsuccessful resolution: selfishness. viii. Integrity vs. despair (65 – Death) – acceptance of one’s life without major regrets. 1. Wisdom and acceptance of self as being in final phase of life. 2. Unsuccessful resolution: regrets; despair that “time has run out” VIII. Hohlberg’s Moral Reasoning a. Hohlberg’s Moral Reasoning – Stages i. Pre-conventional level (lowest level) – responses focused on personal punishments and rewards. ii. Conventional Level (most adults are here) – responses focused on obeying society’s rules and norms. iii. Post-conventional Level (rare at any age) – responses focus on inner moral guidelines apart from society.


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