Ch. 10 Lecture Notes
Ch. 10 Lecture Notes Psych
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Johnson on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Corey M Teague in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 10 Stress I. Understanding Stress a. Stressors – a circumstance that disrupts or could potentially disrupt your daily functioning and cause you to make adjustments. Examples: (exams, family, etc.) b. Psychological Stressors – unpleasant circumstances. i. Catastrophic Events – Weather, accidents, etc. ii. Life Changes – Getting married, graduating, etc. iii. Chronic Stressors - iv. Daily Hassles – Traffic, Chapter 11 Personality II. Psychoanalytic Approach i. People born with basic instincts and needs. ii. Conflict experienced between pleasure-seeking and aggressive impulses and the social restraints against them. iii. Personality results from unique ways in which we resolve basic conflict. b. Psychoanalytic Approach – Parts of the Psyche i. Id – immediate gratification of primitive needs; “pleasure principle.” ii. Ego – worlds offers few opportunities for instant pleasure. Ego holds Id in check until conditions allow for satisfaction of impulses; “reality principle.” iii. Superego – permits us to gratify impulses if and/or when it’s morally correct to do so. Internalization of moral teachings and rules. c. Defense Mechanisms i. When ego senses unacceptable thoughts and impulses are becoming stronger, we experience anxiety. ii. Anxiety results when thoughts and impulses get closer to consciousness (and closer to limits of ego’s ability to hold them in check) iii. Ego uses defense mechanisms to deal with this “crisis.” d. Defense mechanisms – unconscious tactics that prevent threatening material from surfacing to conscious or disguising it. i. Defense mechanisms deflect anxiety in short run can be maladaptive in long run. ii. Repression – pushing back unacceptable thoughts into consciousness. iii. Rationalization – creating false but believable excuses to justify inappropriate behavior. iv. Displacement – redirecting emotional feelings to a substitute target. v. Projection – attributing your own unacceptable feelings to another person. vi. Sublimation – substituting desirable behavior for something similar. vii. Reaction Formation – Doing the opposite of what you think you should do, because doing what you should do would cause too much anxiety. e. Stages of Psychosexual Development 1. Children pass through psychosexual stages during which Id’s pleasure-seeking energies focuses on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of body. a. Oral (First 18 months) – sensual pleasures come from sucking, biting, and chewing. b. Anal (18 months – 3 years) – sphincter muscles become sensitive and controllable; bowel and bladder retention and elimination become a source of gratification. c. Phallic (3 – 6 years) pleasure zone shifts to genitals i. Boys: seek genital stimulation ii. Unconscious sensual/sexual desires for mother and jealousy/hatred of father. iii. (Result: guilt and fear of father’s reprisal – Oedipal Complex. iv. Girls: experience a parallel Electra complex. v. Resolve issues by repressing unacceptable feelings and identifying with same-sex parent. d. Latency (6 – puberty) – sexuality is dormant; children play with same-sex peers. e. Genital (puberty) – sexual impulses/urges starting to emerge. f. Criticisms of Psychoanalytic Approach i. Id, Ego, and Superego can’t be measured/investigated empirically – casts doubt on validity of theory. ii. Theory based on nonrepresentative sample of upper class Viennese women. iii. Anti-woman bias in theory. III. Humanistic Approach i. We all have a natural, inborn tendency to fulfill our true potential (self-actualization). ii. Self-actualized people: iii. Positive attitudes/strive to experience life to the fullest. iv. Accepting of themselves and others. v. Resist pressures to conform. vi. Strive to live in accordance with their values. a. Rogers – personality development evolves from reality one constructs based on how they’ve been evaluated by others. b. Conditional Positive Regard – withholding love/approval for failing to conform to standards set forth by others. c. Unconditional Positive Regard – providing love/approval “without any strings attached” i. People need positive self-regard. ii. Self-actualizing tendencies stifled when people behave contrary to “true selves” to win positive self-regard from others. IV. Cognitive Behavioral/Social Cognitive Approach a. Cognitive-behavioral – stresses importance of cognitive variables as well as learning variables. b. Rotter’s expectancy theory – past learning creates cognitive expectancies and these expectancies guide our behavior. c. Expectations regarding whether events are controlled by internal vs. external factors d. Internal Locus of Control – expects events to be controlled by own efforts. e. External Locus of Control – expects events to be controlled by external forces (luck/chance) f. Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism Theory – there are constant interactions among patterns of thought, the environment, and behavior. i. Behavior affects a person’s environment, which in turn affects cognitions, which in turn affects behavior, and so on. Cognitive Factors Behavioral Factors Environmental Factors g. Self efficacy – belief that you can successfully perform a given behavior regardless of past failures or obstacles – enters into reciprocal determinism equation. i. Higher self-efficacy results in more accomplishments, positive outlooks on life. V. Trait Approach a. Personality a combination of specific, stable traits (i.e., dispositions toward displaying certain behaviors, attitudes, and emotions). b. People have same traits, but in different amounts; personality based on combination & amount of each trait possessed. 1. Central – a person’s primary traits which underlie the majority of behaviors. 2. Secondary – situation-specific traits 3. Cardinal – a single, dominant trait that directs most activities. a. Openness b. Conscientiousness c. Agreeableness d. Neuroticism - drives aggression. VI. Personality Assessment a. Personality i. Life records – analyzing school records, grades, letters, honors, awards, work evaluations. Patterns and themes in record say something about personality. ii. Observation of behavior – provides information about social interactional styles and stimulus-response patterns. iii. Interviews – people themselves are the best sources of information concerning themselves. Provide rich information not otherwise obtained through other methods. b. Personality Tests – objective and projective. i. Objective Test – Person responds to a series of items designed to assess attitudes, symptoms, and personality traits. (True/false; Agree/disagree) Responses Scored and compared to norm group to determine whether person possesses more or less of a particular trait. ii. Projective Test – Person presented with an ambiguous stimulus and asked what they see or to tell a story about the stimulus. Uncover themes or consistencies in responses to stimuli; thought to be a reflection of personality. 1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – designed to assess personality traits and psychological symptoms. 10 clinical scales, each of which consists of items that measure different types of traits/symptoms. Assess degree to which respondents’ answers are similar to various “clinical” groups.
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