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Ch. 13 Lecture Notes

by: Brandon Johnson

Ch. 13 Lecture Notes Psych

Brandon Johnson

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Another set of lecture notes, made with love!
General Psychology
Corey M Teague
Class Notes
General Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Johnson on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Corey M Teague in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
I. Goals of Psychotherapies a. General Goal: Use psychological methods to help troubled people change thinking and behavior so they can lead happier, more productive lives. b. Specific Goals: i. Provision of psychological support ii. Eliminate troublesome behaviors and develop more adaptive behaviors. iii. Promote self-exploration and insight c. Common features of Psychotherapies i. Client – suffering and seeks relief from problem. ii. Therapist – trained in counseling to help client resolve problems. iii. Procedures – techniques/approaches used to help client alleviate problem. iv. Relationship – between client and therapist; quality of relationship important in setting the stage for positive change to occur. II. History of Treating Mental Disorders a. “Letting out” evil spirits via trephining and exorcisms. b. Torture, flogging, drowning, burning at the stake. c. Asylums – “warehousing” of patients; chained to walls. d. Pinel – unchained patients; treated them with kindness (as if part of his family); “moral treatment.” e. Community mental health movement – treat patients in the community instead of keeping them in hospitals. III. Types of Clients a. Inpatients – receive psychotherapy in hospital; problems more chronic or severe; lengths of stay have become shorter. b. Outpatients – receive psychotherapy while living in the community; problems less severe; brief therapy currently popular. IV. Which Clients Benefit Most From Psychology? a. Less disturbed client b. Higher verbal ability c. Younger client d. Motivated Client e. Interpersonally attractive client V. Types of Therapists a. Psychiatrist – medical doctor with specialty training in treatment of medicinal disorders. Can prescribe meds. Many work in outpatient settings with admitting privileges at psychiatric hospitals. b. Psychologist – completed doctoral degree in clinical or counseling psychology. Specialized training in psychotherapy. Specialized training in psychological testing. c. Lic. Prof. Counselor, Clinical Social Worker, Lic. Pastoral Counselor, Lic. Marriage & family Therapist – Completed master’s degree from an accredited graduate school. Work with a variety of mental health and VI. The “Best” Therapist a. Listens to clients with interest, understanding, and sensitivity. b. Makes clients feel accepted, faults and all, and not judged. c. Is supportive while requiring clients to assume responsibility for their thinking and behavior. d. Shows skill in choosing and using an appropriate treatment method. VII. Therapy Formats a. Individual – One client and one therapist. i. Individual – changing a person b. Marital – Couple and therapist. c. Family – Family and therapist. i. Marital/family; marital/family – changing a system. d. Group – involves between 4 and 8 clients. What are the advantages of the group? i. Clients experience relief when they find they’re not the only ones experiencing problems. ii. Support and acceptance provided by group members fosters self-esteem/acceptance. VIII. Psychoanalytic Approach a. Resolve problems by examining childhood experiences and making people aware of conflicts (id, ego, and superego) buried in unconscious. i. Key: use methods to uncover conflicts to promote insight. ii. Insight releases energy previously wasted on the conflict. b. Treatment Methods: i. Free association – client relaxes and reports whatever comes to mind; contain clues to unconscious conflicts. ii. Dream analysis – interpreting hidden meaning in client’s dreams. iii. Manifest Content – remembered portion of dream. iv. Latent Content – unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses/conflicts with societal constraints. Symbolic representation of impulses/conflicts. v. Transference – client transfers (or directs) positive and negative feelings associated with parents and other childhood authority figures toward the therapist. Feelings and their meaning are discussed to promote insight. vi. Counter transference – when the therapist transfers positive and negative feelings associated with parents and other childhood authority figures toward the client. vii. Resistance – client may knowingly or unknowingly resist discussion of certain topics that create too much anxiety. IX. Humanistic Approach a. Goals – to help remove obstacles blocking personal growth/self- actualization process. To help people appreciate and accept their true selves. To find meaning in life and live in ways truly consistent with traits and values. b. Rogers: Mental disorders stem from unrealistic conditions of woth acquired early in life. c. Client-centered therapy – focuses on eliminating unrealistic conditions of worth via therapeutic conditions: Genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy. X. Cognitive-Behavioral/Behavioral Approach a. Assumption: Mental disorders result from faulty learning. b. Goal: Applying principles of learning to help change behaviors and thinking patterns associated with psychological disorders. c. Treatment Methods i. Systematic Desensitization – reducing fear or anxiety by gradually exposing client to increasingly anxiety-provoking versions of the feared stimulus, while she/he is relaxed. 1. Construct fear hierarchy (list of least to most anxiety- provoking items related to fear situation) 2. Relaxation training. 3. Work up hierarchy using relaxation to conquer anxiety along the way. ii. Aversion Therapy – undesirable behavior followed by punishment. iii. Token Economies – clients earn tokens that they can exchange for various rewards by engaging in desirable forms of behavior. iv. Cognitive Restructuring – helping client replace irrational, illogical, or maladaptive belief/thought patterns with more realistic and adaptive ones.


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