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Bio 101 notes

by: Jenna Zagrodniczek

Bio 101 notes Biology 101

Jenna Zagrodniczek

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the exam.
General Biology
Sydha Salihu (P)
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Zagrodniczek on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 101 at West Virginia University taught by Sydha Salihu (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Chapter 3: Cells What is a cell? Any living thing is made up of a collection of cell. The smallest unit of a living thing. -Robert Hooke, a British scientist mid 1600’s -All cells contain DNA The only cell, which does not contain DNA: Red blood cells So for all practical purposes, the statement “all cells contain DNA” is true How to see a cell? Microscope -Light microscope -Transmission Electron Micrograph: Can see the inside of the cell -Scanning Electron Micrograph: Studies the outside of the cell -Largest cell: egg (osterage egg) Cell Theory 1) All living organisms are made up of one or more cells 2) All cells arise from other pre-existing cells The first cells on earth likely originated from free-floating molecules in the oceans early in earth’s history (about three and a half billion years ago) Two types of cells -Prokaryotic: No nucleus, no organelles, smaller in size, first type of cell on earth. (example: bacteria) Has DNA, but NO nucleus. -Eukaryotic: has nunclus, has organelles, larger in size. (Example: plants, fungi, and animals) Has a central control structure called nucleus, which contains the cells DNA. Organisms composed of eukaryotic cells are called eukaryotes. What do all these cells have in common? 1) Has cell membrane- encompasses the cell. Anything inside the plasma membrane is referred to as intracellular, while everything outside of the plasma membrane is extracelluar. 2) Has DNA- each prokaryote has one of more circular loops or linear strands of DNA 3) Has Cytoplasm- jelly like fluid that fills the inside of cell 4) Has Ribosomes- helps make proteins Plasmids (small, circular DNA) The 3 domains of life: Bacteria, Archare, Eukarya. (Eukarya:Prtists, plants, fungi, animals) What have bacteria done for you lately? Food: yogurt, cheese Environment: oil eating bacteria Humans: Beneficial Plasmids: Genetic engineering Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria MRSA: Methicillin Resistan Staphylococcus aureus National institute of health (NIH) Superbug: CRK- Carbapenem Reistatn Klebsiella -These relateively new, highly reistant strains of bacteria- carbapenem resistant Gram negative bacteria as Klebisella and Acinetobacter- are not just at NIH. This is a widespread problem throught much of the country. Waste accumulates in cells due to abnormal lysosome Order of the pathway of a secreted protein: Rough endoplasmic reticulum, transport vesicles, golgi bodies, plasmamembrane Plant Cell: -Cell (cellulose) wall is addition to cell membrane. Provides additional protection and support for plant cells. Type of polysaccharide (carbohydrate) -Vacuoles functions: nutrient storage, waste management, predator deterrence, physical support, sexual reproduction. Colorful pigments -Chloroplasts- green organelles seen in plant. Power plant. Chloroplasts have circular DNA. Has 2 membranes just like mitochondria. Plant organelle -Chlorophyll- plant pigment other parts of the cell cell membrane, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton- physical support, cell division and movement Sperm cell: Cilia and Flagellum (flagella is the tail) with gentle beating, cilia can move fluid past cells, whereas flagella, with whip like motions, can move the cells themselves. Present in both animals and plants as well as mitochondria. Cells are connected and communicate with each other. ANIMAL CELLS: 1) Tight junctions- form a water tight seal between cells; like caulking around a tub. 2) Desmosomes- act like Velcro and fasten cells together 3) Gap junctions- act like secret passageways and allow materials to pass between cells Significance of cell communication? Cancer- lack of cell communication Plasmodesmata- tube like channels connecting the plant cells to each other and enabling communication and transport between them


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