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Police and Society

by: Kimberly Notetaker

Police and Society JUST 2012

Kimberly Notetaker
GPA 3.7
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About this Document

these notes cover key points in chapter 4 reviewed in class
Police and Society
Keri Grimsley
Class Notes
Criminal Justice




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JUST 2012 at East Carolina University taught by Keri Grimsley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Police and Society in Law and Legal Studies at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Police and Society Chapter Four  Evolving Strategies of Policing o Two issues led to questions being raised about the reform model  Drawbacks of the reform model and isolation of police from communities  Failing to increase public trust and crime control o These issues led to adoption of community policing o Also important was the increasing emphasis on research  Use of data and technology for problem-oriented strategies  Landmark studies of Police Effectiveness o A # of influential studies have had a lasting impact on policing  1) patrol studies  Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment  2) Response time studies  Effectiveness of response time is limited due to two primary factors  3) Criminal investigation studies  The Rand study  Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment o Purpose was to determine effect of random patrol on crime and citizen’s feelings of security o Police departments tried to ensure that certain percentage of officer’s time was spent on random patrol-expectation that patrols deterred crime o Control beats, proactive beats (2-3x more cars), reactive beats (no patrols) o Study over one year o Patrol conditions did NOT affect  Crime rates  Citizen attitudes toward police  Citizen’s feelings of security-did not notice extra patrols or absence  Wrecks  Arrests  Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment o Study suggested that traditional preventative patrols was not as effective as most believed o Time officers spent doing random patrol could be used more effectively  Response time studies o Assumption was that the faster police responded, the more satisfied citizens would be o More likely suspects apprehended o Police Dept. spent $$$ attempting to reduce response times o 2 factors  1) time when crime occurred vs. when citizen discovered crime  2) usually a delay in reporting to police even when victim was directly involved in crime/witness- Avg. 6 min delay in reporting  Therefore, in most cases apprehension of suspect is highly unlikely from the initial report  Researchers discovered that citizen satisfaction was based less on quick response time, more on knowing exactly how long it would take officer to arrive  What officer DOES upon arrival o Calls started to be assigned priority levels o Majority of calls to the police are not critical  Rand Study (1970s) o 25 Detectives Units observed o Findings:  20% serious crimes solved  Solved because of information obtained through victims rather than leads developed  75% of cases solved, suspect’s ID known/easily determined at time crime was reported  Majority of Det time spent reviewing reports, documenting, attempting to locate victims  Police collect large amount of physical evidence that does not contribute to solving case o Resulted in PDs looking for ways to free up Det. Time spent on fruitless investigations & concentrate on cases with better probability of success  Strategic Development o Given landmark studies and other research findings, a variety of strategic efforts were developed, focusing on  Improving crime-control effectiveness  Improving police-community relations  Improving professionalism  Developing evidence-based practices o A variety of approaches to improving crime-control’s impact were adopted in response to the landmark studies  Crime analysis- collecting information about crime and calls for service  Directed patrol- concentrated patrol efforts  Differential response programs- classify call priorities  Case screening – allows detectives to concentrate on cases with a higher probability of being solved (solvability factors)  Problem-oriented policing- more details later o Many departments considered revising their basic operational strategies  Improving crime-control Effectiveness o Federal research agencies (NIJ) as well as professional organizations (PERF, IACP) encourage agencies to experiment new tactics and disseminate latest information to departments o 50 years ago each PD was like their own island, dependent on it’s own experiences to figure out how to best operate o Today police departments have access to tremendous amounts of information about new innovations, best practices, and results of studies  Improving Police-Community Relations o The most persistent aspect of community policing is its attention to improving police-minority relations  Difficult due to long history of discrimination  Emphasized importance of communication and mutual understanding  Adoption of foot patrol to encourage more intimate understanding  Newark replication of Kansas City experiment with focus on foot patrol o What were the study’s conclusions? o Foot patrols do not affect crime o However, citizens are less fearful of crime when officers foot patrol-better police-community relations  Broken-windows: foot patrol officers pay more attention to disorderly behavior and minor offenses, better able to understand what constitutes inappropriate behavior, observe it and correct it  Improving Professionalism o Standards for policing hiring increased  More police officers are college graduates  Police departments are more diverse  State mandated training (BLET) o Police training efforts also improved  Longer amounts of time training  More realistic training (scenario based) o Technological and equipment advancements o Implementation of standards, certification, and accreditation o Attention to legitimacy (consent, cooperation, collaboration) and innovation (adopt best practices and contribute to ongoing research)  Developing Evidence-based Practices o Police practices have also been guided by evidence  Idea that police should adopt practices with most evidence of support o If police do not follow this principle, then they are:  Not as effective as they could be  Wasting resources on ineffective strategies and programs o Requires both commitment to most effective practices AND willingness to sponsor ongoing evaluations and research  Many police practices have not been studied  New practices are adopted by PDs all the time  Scientific Knowledge and Professional Opinions o Evidence based approach  Policing should rest on scientific knowledge-careful testing of programs and strategies to determine effectiveness o Professional opinions  Policing is more like a craft. Context and details should be taken into account, each situation is different, usefulness of general police principles is limited  Strategic Alternatives o A variety of strategic alternatives to traditional approaches to policing were adopted during the 1980s and 1990s  Community policing  Problem-oriented policing  Intelligence-led policing  Predictive policing  Community Policing o The emphasis on community policing began in the 1980s  Logical combination of more than 30 years of police effectiveness  Attempt to harness the advantages of foot patrol with an emphasis on broke windows-enforcing minor violations o There exist 3 major dimensions of community policing  Philosophical dimension  Strategic dimension  Tactical dimension  The Philosophical Dimension o 3 central beliefs  Citizen input  Open access to police organizations  Input into police policies and decisions (surveys, forums, town meetings, call-in programs, FB, twitter) o Broad police function-instead of narrow focus on crime fighting  Resolve conflict, help victims, prevent accidents, solve problems, reduce fear  Personal service- CP supports idea of police services being tailored to local norms and needs  The Strategic Dimension o This dimension focuses on three important changes  Less reliance on the patrol car and more emphasis on face-to- face interactions  Goal to replace ineffective/isolating operational practices with effective interactive practices  Geographic focus  Permanency of assignment-increases officer familiarity with assigned area, build trust, cooperation with citizens  Preventative Emphasis  Proactive and preventative orientation v. reactive under reform model  The Tactical Dimension o Three dimensions are most central to the tactical side of community policing efforts  Positive interaction-whenever possible  Like what?  Partnerships-with community  Problem solving-instead of case by case-focus on big picture  Incidents still handled and investigated  Focus on underlying problems/conditions  Problem-Oriented Policing o Similar to community-oriented policing, emphasis began in 1980s  It exists of four steps, which together form the SARA model:  Identification of the problem (scan)  Analysis of the problem (analysis)  Search for alternative solutions to the problem (response)  Implementation and assessment of a response to the problem (assessment)  Pg. 112 inside policing o Important features+  Should be standard operating procedure for policing-not special project  Should be practiced by personnel throughout the ranks  Should be empirical-decisions based on empirical evidence gathered systematically  Should involve collaboration across agencies whenever possible  Should incorporate community input/participation whenever possible o Ultimately, seeks tailored response to community problems  Intelligence-led policing o Emphasizes the use of “real-time” crime analysis o Demands more centralization and information and decision-making than is common in American policing  As well as more analytical capacity o Three factors account for the development of this style since the 1990s  Technological improvements in police data systems  The terrorist events of 9/11  The new managerialism philosophy that emphasizes top-down direction in control  Predictive policing o The primary aim of predictive policing is anticipation o Use data to do the following  React more quickly to incidents and patterns  Predict events in the hope of preventing or acting preemptively o This makes stopping crime more than just a dream o There are philosophical and legal concerns that follow predictive policing efforts o CJ system is designed to hold offenders accountable for what they have already done-not what they might do in the future  What works in policing o Evidence regarding the effectiveness of the 4 strategies reviewed in this chapter is fairly limited  Due to the fact that techniques are multifaceted and effects are hard to identify  ILP and predictive policing are so new solid evidence regarding effeectivness is not available


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