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by: Desiree Notetaker
Desiree Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.77

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About this Document

The second part of the chapter outline.
World Civilizations
Class Notes
Early Africa, Egypt, chapter outline, notes, world civilizations
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Desiree Notetaker on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 110a at California State University - Fullerton taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.

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Date Created: 02/18/16
EGYPT –WORLD CIVILIZATIONS  The Pharaoh  3100­1000 BCE –period that Egypt had its greatest triumphs and cultural achievements  The Pharaoh (he or she) was a god who chose to live on Earth. Governed through a group of  officials, mainly of noble landowners and temple priests. Directly responsible for the welfare of  Egypt.  Intermediate Periods: Two short intervals 2200­2100BCE and 1650­1570BCE when the  pharaoh’s powers were diminished. The first remains unclear. The second period was due to  invasion by Hyksos, who conquered the Nile delta.  There were 31 dynasties, beginning with Menes and ending with the dynasty that fell to the  Persian invaders (525 BCE).   Old Kingdom (3100­2200 BCE) –from Menes to the first Intermediate period. More  fertile and successful era. Built the pyramids of Giza during this time.   Middle Kingdom – (2100­1650BCE). 500years of political stability after the first  intermediate period. Trade was more extensive. Labor became worse. Controlled more  territory.   New Kingdom – (1550­770 BCE) also called the Empire. Lasted through the years of  wars against the Hittites and others for control. Long centuries of sporadic weakness. The Empire did not last because of military reversals and internal discontent. The last 300  years, experience frequent invasions over the Sinai Desert and from the south. The  Kushites and Assyrians invaded repeatedly. The Persians in 525 finally conquered them.  However, cultural forms and beliefs stayed. The Great Pyramid of Khufu was the largest and grandest commemorative edifice ever built.  Between 2600 and 2100 BCE, the pyramids were built during the pharaoh’s time and used as  their tomb.  Around 1300, statues of warrior­pharaohs were built. Some still stand at the Nile sites of Karnak  and Tel el Amarna. All tombs were robbed of their treasures, except for King Tut’s, who was  hidden underneath the ground until discovered in 1920.  Hieroglyphics: pictographs that could convey either an idea or a phonetic sound. It began as far  back as 3000 BCE. Confined to a small group of educated people. Gradually disappeared in the  th 6  century.  Religion was polytheistic.   Amun­Ra: combined from Amun and Ra (gods of the Sun). Represents the embodiment  of all gods.   Anuket: goddess of the Nile and fertility   Osiris: ruler of the afterlife   Anubis: goddess of the underworld who weighed the souls (ka) and of the dead  Horus: the ruling Pharaoh  Ptah: represents rebirth and renewal of life  Ka: Life essence that could return to life, even after the death of the original physical body.  Monotheism: one god. During his reign, Akhanton attempted to introduce only one god, the sun  god, Aton. He announced that Aton should be worshipped as the single and universal god of all  creation. Priests opposed this idea.  As far back as the Old Kingdom, Egypt traded with Byblos for timber. Pharaohs sent expeditions into Nubia for gold and ivory, also it provided slaves.  Pharaohs in the Middle Kingdom, sent for copper and gold in the Sinai Peninsula, during the  time Bronze was used. Trade to the south was the most valuable.  Land of Punt –trade in luxuries (spices, frankincense, myrrh, and gold from India, Arabia and  eastern Africa.  New Kingdom pharaohs pushed conquests into the Nubian land of Kush. It became an Egyptian  province until 1070 BCE.  Nubia: southern Egypt and northern Sudan. The civilization of Kush, an African kingdom,  flourished here. The original capital was Kerma, then Assyria conquered Egypt, causingthe  capital to move further South to Napata. Later it was moved again to Meroe. The kingdom cut  most of its ties and became African in character. The principal product was iron making. By the  third century, it reached its height, deriving its strength from trade from the African interior and  with southern Arabia across the Red Sea. 


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