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Lecture 8 - Self Knowledge

by: Leslie Ogu

Lecture 8 - Self Knowledge PSYC 2012

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 2012 > Lecture 8 Self Knowledge
Leslie Ogu
GPA 3.01

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In this lecture, we discussed how we see ourselves and what characteristics we have determine the type of person we come off as, such as if we are narcissistic, motivated by external factors, etc
Social Psychology
Stock, M
Class Notes
external, internal, extrinsic, intrinsic, motivation, social psychology, narcissistic, self knowledge, Self-Esteem
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012  02/17/2016 ­ Self Knowledge    Background  ➢ What influences how do we feel about ourselves?  ○ How others judge and interact with us  ○ This in turn influences the way we judge and interact with others    Describing Oneself  ➢ Physical Self­Descriptions  ○ refers to physical qualities that do not imply social interaction; “identity  card” information  ○ Examples include height, hair color, gender, etc   ➢ Social Self­Descriptions  ○ refers to the relationships, group memberships, social roles, and attitudes  which are socially defined and validated  ○ Examples include being apart of a sports team, a family role, a general  role like a college student, etc  ➢ Psychological Self­Descriptions  ○ refers to the psychological traits and states and to attitudes which do not  refer to particular social referents  ○ Examples include being an outgoing person, feeling angry, certain likes  and dislikes, and more  ➢ Holistic Self­Descriptions  ○ refers to characteristics so comprehensive or vague that they don’t really  distinguish a person from other people  ■ Ex: “I am a child of God” or “I am a person”  ➢ Self­Concept:  our knowledge about who we are  ○ cognitive component of the self  ○ consists primarily of personal attributes  ■ we think of ourselves in terms of our characteristics that separate  us from others  ■ depends on ​ situation and ​ulture  ○ Cultural Variation  ■ people with an ​ individualisti orientation tend to answer with trait  descriptions such as “I am talkative” or “I am responsible”  ■ people with ​connectivist​ orientation tend to answer with group  affiliations such as “I am a team member of the Eagles” or “I am a  college graduate”  How Our Orientation Affects the Self  ➢ View of the Self  ○ individualistic people see themselves as more unique than collectivist  people  ➢ Expression of Emotion  ○ individualistic people express more “ego­focused” emotions, such as  jealousy and pride, than collectivist people  ➢ Striving  ○ individualistic people gain status from personal achievement  ○ collectivist people gain status from group achievement  ➢ Gender Differences  ○ Women have more relational dependence  ■ Focus is on closer relationships  ○ Men have collective interdependence  ■ Focus on larger social groups    Traits That Describe Us  ➢ Self­Awareness & Discrepancies  ○ Self­Awareness Theory:​  self­awareness can lead us to compare our  internal values with our outward behavior  ■ If there are inconsistencies, we may experience discomfort  ■ In order to deal with the discomfort, we can:  ● Behave in a manner that reduces the inconsistency  ● Withdraw from self­awareness  ○ Negative Ways  ■ Smoking, Drinking, Risky Behavior  ■ Avoidance  ○ Positive Ways  ■ Focus on faith and/or religion  ■ Our acts are more aligned with standards  and/or morals  ■ More socially desirable behavior  ■ Self­focus is not always damaging or aversive:  ● Ex: If you experienced a major success  ● It can also possibly remind you of your sense of right and  wrong  ■ People are less likely to stereotype others or perform wrong acts if  they can see themselves (in a mirror or TV), or even when their  name flashes on a screen  ○ Self­Reference:​  tendency for people to remember information better if  they relate it to themselves  ■ the self generates a rich set of cues  ■ self­reference instructions encourage people to think about how  their personal traits are related to one another  ■ you rehearse material more frequently if it’s associated with  yourself  ○ Self­Esteem:​  how much value a person places on themselves  ■ this can fluctuate in response to life experiences  ■ High Self­Esteem:​  a highly positive, global, self­evaluation  ● people see themselves as competent, good, and decent,  and usually have a feeling of pride  ● Good or Bad?  ○ High Self­Esteem  ■ less stress  ■ more in­group favoritism  ■ more likely to take risks  ■ fewer psychosomatic symptoms  ■ greater perceived control  ■ intrinsic motivation  ■ optimism and hope  ■ defensiveness  ○ Research suggests that high self­esteem is more of a  problem for people who have high explicit  self­esteem, and low implicit self­esteem  ● Maintaining high self­esteem is one of the basic motives of  the self  ■ Low Self­Esteem:​  a highly negative, global, self­evaluation  ● feeling of shame  ● this is seen a lot in college students and adolescent youth  ■ Self­Esteem comes from evaluations of oneself after successes  and failures (self­evaluation)  ● Successes in valued domains (e.g., social skills,  appearance)  ● It also comes from societal values  ● In America, men typically have higher levels of self­esteem  ● Women base esteem more on their appearance and what  the media portrays as acceptable  ● Measuring Self­Esteem:  ○ Explicit measures  ■ Ex: “Overall, I am happy with myself”  ○ Implicit measures  ■ Ex: name­letter preference (our action of  picking letters that we can find in our own  name)  ■ Enhancing Self­Esteem  ● Bask in Reflected Glory (BIRG):​  when people increase  their self­esteem by associating themselves with others who  are successful  ○ Ex: how people will win their sports team once they  win and says how it was a great victory for “them”  ● Cut Off Reflected Failure (CORF):​  when people distance  themselves from those who have failed  ○ Narcissism:​  large sense of self­importance (self­centered, self­admired,  high self­confidence)  ■ the person believes they are “special” and unique, and should  associate with others like them  ■ takes advantage of others to achieve their own goals  ■ require admiration  ■ has a sense of entitlement  ■ lacks empathy  ■ often envious of others or believe others are envious of them  ■ Positives:  ● less depressed, sad, anxious, and less reactive to stress  ○ this is especially common among reality TV stars and  celebrities  ○ has increased over the past 30 years  ○ Intrinsic Motivation:​  pursuing a goal / engaging in an activity because  you enjoy it, are passionate about it, or find it interesting  ■ highly individualized  ■ self­regulatory  ■ absence of an external reward or pressure  ■ Studies have shown that intrinsically motivated people are more  likely to enjoy the activity and are more likely to continue it  ○ Extrinsic Motivation: ​ pursuing a goal / engaging in an activity because of  the external rewards or pressures  ■ less individualized  ○ Overjustification Effect:​  the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish  for activities that have become associated with extrinsic rewards  ■ This means the person probably views the extrinsic reward as more  of a motivation for doing the activity and begins to underestimate  their intrinsic interest  ○ Types of Rewards  ■ Task­Contingent Rewards: ​ rewards given for performing a task,  regardless of how well the task is performed  ● Ex: Receiving a certificate for helping at a retirement home  ■ Performance­Contingent Rewards: ​ rewards based on how well  the task is performed  ● Ex: NBA All­Star Weekend Dunk Contest Trophy to the best  dunker  ● Ex: promotion at work 


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