Lecture 8 - Self Knowledge
Lecture 8 - Self Knowledge PSYC 2012
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/18/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012 02/17/2016 Self Knowledge Background ➢ What influences how do we feel about ourselves? ○ How others judge and interact with us ○ This in turn influences the way we judge and interact with others Describing Oneself ➢ Physical SelfDescriptions ○ refers to physical qualities that do not imply social interaction; “identity card” information ○ Examples include height, hair color, gender, etc ➢ Social SelfDescriptions ○ refers to the relationships, group memberships, social roles, and attitudes which are socially defined and validated ○ Examples include being apart of a sports team, a family role, a general role like a college student, etc ➢ Psychological SelfDescriptions ○ refers to the psychological traits and states and to attitudes which do not refer to particular social referents ○ Examples include being an outgoing person, feeling angry, certain likes and dislikes, and more ➢ Holistic SelfDescriptions ○ refers to characteristics so comprehensive or vague that they don’t really distinguish a person from other people ■ Ex: “I am a child of God” or “I am a person” ➢ SelfConcept: our knowledge about who we are ○ cognitive component of the self ○ consists primarily of personal attributes ■ we think of ourselves in terms of our characteristics that separate us from others ■ depends on situation and ulture ○ Cultural Variation ■ people with an individualisti orientation tend to answer with trait descriptions such as “I am talkative” or “I am responsible” ■ people with connectivist orientation tend to answer with group affiliations such as “I am a team member of the Eagles” or “I am a college graduate” How Our Orientation Affects the Self ➢ View of the Self ○ individualistic people see themselves as more unique than collectivist people ➢ Expression of Emotion ○ individualistic people express more “egofocused” emotions, such as jealousy and pride, than collectivist people ➢ Striving ○ individualistic people gain status from personal achievement ○ collectivist people gain status from group achievement ➢ Gender Differences ○ Women have more relational dependence ■ Focus is on closer relationships ○ Men have collective interdependence ■ Focus on larger social groups Traits That Describe Us ➢ SelfAwareness & Discrepancies ○ SelfAwareness Theory: selfawareness can lead us to compare our internal values with our outward behavior ■ If there are inconsistencies, we may experience discomfort ■ In order to deal with the discomfort, we can: ● Behave in a manner that reduces the inconsistency ● Withdraw from selfawareness ○ Negative Ways ■ Smoking, Drinking, Risky Behavior ■ Avoidance ○ Positive Ways ■ Focus on faith and/or religion ■ Our acts are more aligned with standards and/or morals ■ More socially desirable behavior ■ Selffocus is not always damaging or aversive: ● Ex: If you experienced a major success ● It can also possibly remind you of your sense of right and wrong ■ People are less likely to stereotype others or perform wrong acts if they can see themselves (in a mirror or TV), or even when their name flashes on a screen ○ SelfReference: tendency for people to remember information better if they relate it to themselves ■ the self generates a rich set of cues ■ selfreference instructions encourage people to think about how their personal traits are related to one another ■ you rehearse material more frequently if it’s associated with yourself ○ SelfEsteem: how much value a person places on themselves ■ this can fluctuate in response to life experiences ■ High SelfEsteem: a highly positive, global, selfevaluation ● people see themselves as competent, good, and decent, and usually have a feeling of pride ● Good or Bad? ○ High SelfEsteem ■ less stress ■ more ingroup favoritism ■ more likely to take risks ■ fewer psychosomatic symptoms ■ greater perceived control ■ intrinsic motivation ■ optimism and hope ■ defensiveness ○ Research suggests that high selfesteem is more of a problem for people who have high explicit selfesteem, and low implicit selfesteem ● Maintaining high selfesteem is one of the basic motives of the self ■ Low SelfEsteem: a highly negative, global, selfevaluation ● feeling of shame ● this is seen a lot in college students and adolescent youth ■ SelfEsteem comes from evaluations of oneself after successes and failures (selfevaluation) ● Successes in valued domains (e.g., social skills, appearance) ● It also comes from societal values ● In America, men typically have higher levels of selfesteem ● Women base esteem more on their appearance and what the media portrays as acceptable ● Measuring SelfEsteem: ○ Explicit measures ■ Ex: “Overall, I am happy with myself” ○ Implicit measures ■ Ex: nameletter preference (our action of picking letters that we can find in our own name) ■ Enhancing SelfEsteem ● Bask in Reflected Glory (BIRG): when people increase their selfesteem by associating themselves with others who are successful ○ Ex: how people will win their sports team once they win and says how it was a great victory for “them” ● Cut Off Reflected Failure (CORF): when people distance themselves from those who have failed ○ Narcissism: large sense of selfimportance (selfcentered, selfadmired, high selfconfidence) ■ the person believes they are “special” and unique, and should associate with others like them ■ takes advantage of others to achieve their own goals ■ require admiration ■ has a sense of entitlement ■ lacks empathy ■ often envious of others or believe others are envious of them ■ Positives: ● less depressed, sad, anxious, and less reactive to stress ○ this is especially common among reality TV stars and celebrities ○ has increased over the past 30 years ○ Intrinsic Motivation: pursuing a goal / engaging in an activity because you enjoy it, are passionate about it, or find it interesting ■ highly individualized ■ selfregulatory ■ absence of an external reward or pressure ■ Studies have shown that intrinsically motivated people are more likely to enjoy the activity and are more likely to continue it ○ Extrinsic Motivation: pursuing a goal / engaging in an activity because of the external rewards or pressures ■ less individualized ○ Overjustification Effect: the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with extrinsic rewards ■ This means the person probably views the extrinsic reward as more of a motivation for doing the activity and begins to underestimate their intrinsic interest ○ Types of Rewards ■ TaskContingent Rewards: rewards given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is performed ● Ex: Receiving a certificate for helping at a retirement home ■ PerformanceContingent Rewards: rewards based on how well the task is performed ● Ex: NBA AllStar Weekend Dunk Contest Trophy to the best dunker ● Ex: promotion at work
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