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GEOG 101 Week 1 Notes: Lectures 1 & 2

by: Julia Parenti

GEOG 101 Week 1 Notes: Lectures 1 & 2 GEOG 101 001

Marketplace > Towson University > Geography > GEOG 101 001 > GEOG 101 Week 1 Notes Lectures 1 2
Julia Parenti
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These notes cover Lectures 1 & 2. Topics: -Science of Geography -Five Themes of Geography -Physical Geography -Earth's 4 Spheres -Scientific Method -Distributional Patterns -Hazards and R...
Physical Geography
Dr. Ken Barnes
Class Notes
geography, physical geography




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Parenti on Thursday February 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 101 001 at Towson University taught by Dr. Ken Barnes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Geography at Towson University.


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Date Created: 02/18/16
Physical Geography Lecture 1  Geography: from geo “earth” and graphein “to write”  Geography is: ­a method, not simply a body of knowledge or collection of facts ­holistic ­eclectic ­a science that investigates spatial patterns of phenomena and the processes responsible  for those distributions  Geographys use spatial analysis ­analyzing data that specifically includes info about the location of places and their  attributes  The science that studies the relationships among: ­natural systems ­geographic areas ­society ­cultural activities ­interdependence of all of these over space Five Themes of Geography:  Location  Region  Human­Environment Relationships  Place  Movement Physical Geography  Special analysis of all physical elements and processes that make up the environment   Physical geographers are interested: ­in processes that shape the landscapes occupied by humanity ­the ways in which humans observe   Ecology, Geology, Biogeography, Meteorology, Climatology, Hydrology,  Geomophology, Soils = Scope of Geography Earth’s 4 spheres:  Atmosphere  Hydrosphere   Biosphere  Lithosphere Distributional Patterns:  Geography is a science that investigates the: ­distributes of phenomena over space and time ­processes Hazards and Resources:  Processes that shape or impact landscapes are incompatible with human use. These  processes operating at any given location may manifest as natural hazards. ­floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, wildfires, tropical storms.   Locations also afford humanities with opportunity these opportunities are natural  resources  Locations may present both resources and hazards simultaneously  Lecture 2 Scientific Method and Systems/Concepts  Induction:  ­involves reasoning from the specific to the general ­using a limited (specific) set of observations to make inferences/generalizations about a  population  Deduction: ­involves reasoning from the general (theory) to explain specific phenomena, processes  or behaviors ­requires confirmation  Both approaches are used in scientific inquiry Scientific Method  Sir Francis Bacon (1561­1626)  Karl Popper’s Method: “hypothetico­deductive” method ­using falsification ­statistical tests to confirm hypotheses by: ­null (no difference) or alternate (differences) hypotheses  Method begins with a problem for which a solution or hypothesis (educated guess) is  postulated  Guides the research through “observation, analysis, synthesis and conclusions”


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